core networks from GSM to UMTS

Evolving core networks from GSM to UMTS R4 version

FREE-DOWNLOAD [PDF] Y Ouyang… – … Journal of Mobile Network Design and …, 2009
Abstract: More than 217 UMTS licenses have been issued by June 2007. Mobile operators, especially
those with GSM legacy networks, prefer UMTS R4 technique to evolve their existing 2G GSM
networks. UMTS R4 technique provides a smooth path to bridge legacy TDM-based