Nanotechnology — A new frontier for food security in socio economic development
Agricultural sustainability is facing challenges both in respect to food security and ecological vulnerability all over the world. Day by day food prices increase while the food production seems to be drastically low. This brings out the issues of sustainability covering both agro-ecological and socio-economic indicators. It has been observed that the number of hungry people will be more than one billion by 2015. Nanotechnology is being explored in the ﬁeld of agriculture to boost production by several companies. Nano particles are engineered materials that operate at a scale of 100 nanometers (nm) or less. Nanotechnology can create breakthroughs in the food sector. But scientists would like to predict that this technology may create some risk in ecological, health and in socio-economic sectors. Nanotechnology may create some toxic effects in food chain, in biomagniﬁcation and also in food web. Naturally, the toxicological effects need consideration. The article deals with the prospect of nanotechnology in the food sector as it is related with the socio-economic development. Several reports suggest that the food chain and the normal processes of energy ﬂow is altered by nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have to be used properly to avoid disastrous consequences.
Nature is a unique phenomena where humans are an important part and naturally their basic needs are food, shelter, clothing and medicines. All the things are coexisted with food only. Thus the agriculture is the main existence in the nature which allow us to get food. Now a days agriculture in India has permitted widespread adoption of genetically improved new seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, intensive irrigation, optimum agronomic conditions and modern machinery to only a few crops. Advances in breeding for crop improvement, higher nutrition, abiotic and biotic stress resistance, post-harvest preservation, etc. have met with limited success. These processes clearly denotes the loss of original seed crops from the nature. Naturally, the natural food products are unable to get in future. In the same way there are several new techniques are developed in the present decade. The present situation of agricultural production faces the challenge of enhancing crop production and providing nutritionally adequate diets for the increasing population, under uncertain climatic extremes, water scarcity, in limited (and degraded at many places) land area, with more requirement of water, and in many cases with poor quality water and air, and rapid erosion of natural biodiversity. To maintain the food quality in relation to its huge production, the food security is also an important factor. The food production, quality and food security can be maintained by introducing small science in the present century. Thus small science have such a big impact, this is nothing but nanotechnology. Now a big question is whether we will apply this technique in the agriculture ﬁeld or not? The question is why? To get this answered, we have to enter the inner part of this technology, the advantage and disadvantage of this technique.