research paper-wireless communication-bluetooth


Bluetooth (BT) wireless technology provides an easy way for a wide range of devices to communicate with each other and connect to the Internet without the need for wires, cables and connectors. It is supported and used in products by over 3000 companies, including large corporations such as Sony Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Intel, IBM, Toshiba, Motorola, Apple, Microsoft, and even Toyota, Lexus and BMW. A variety of products available on the market have short range Bluetooth radios installed, including printers, laptops, keyboards, cars and the most popular type of Bluetooth enabled devices - mobile phones, driving 60% of the Bluetooth market. The technology has already gained enormous popularity, with more than 3 million Bluetooth-enabled products shipping every week. According to IDC, there will be over 922 million Bluetooth enabled devices worldwide by 2008. The technology seams to be very interesting and beneficial, yet it can also be a high threat for the privacy and security of Bluetooth users

The idea behind Bluetooth technology was born in 1994, when a team of researchers at Ericsson Mobile Communications, led by Dr. JaapHaartsen and Dr. Sven Mattisson, initiated a feasibility study of universal short-range, low-power wireless connectivity as a way of eliminating cables between mobile phones and computers, headsets and other devices. It was later developed into the Bluetooth technology we know today by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), an industry association which was announced in May 1998 and formally founded in September 1998. The founding members were Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba, and later in December 1999, 3Com Corporation, Lucent Technologies, Microsoft Corporation and Motorola Inc. joined the Bluetooth SIG.

After years of development the final Bluetooth technology uses the free and globally available 2.4GHz IndustrialScientific-Medical (ISM) radio band, unlicensed for low-power use, and allows two Bluetooth devices within 10-100 m range to share data with throughput up to 723.2 Kbps, or 2.1Mbps with the new Enhanced Data Rate specification already released in 2005. Each device can simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices per piconet. Bluetooth technology is also intended to be secure by providing authentication, encryption, quality of service (QoS) control and other security features. However, it will be shown that Bluetooth is vulnerable in a number of ways, opening the door for many malicious attacks now and in the future.

adaptive-frequency-hopping-for bluetooth-robust-to-wlan-interference

an-adaptive-traffic-aware-polling-and-scheduling-algorithm-for bluetooth-piconets

an-antenna-for-uwb-and bluetooth-standards-with-band-notched-characteristic-2

an-antenna-for-uwb-and bluetooth-standards-with-band-notched-characteristic

an-empirical-study-of-spatial-and-transpatial-social-networks-using bluetooth-and-facebook

an-energy-efficiency-model-for-adaptive-and-custom-error-control-schemes-in bluetooth-sensor-networks-2

an-energy-efficiency-model-for-adaptive-and-custom-error-control-schemes-in bluetooth-sensor-networks

an-overlapping-communication-protocol-using-improved-time-slot-leasing-for bluetooth-wpans

analysing-spatial-and-temporal-sequences-in bluetooth-tracking-data

analysis-of-the bluetooth-device-discovery-protocol

automobile-functions-control-system-via bluetooth-utility

bluetooth data-acquisition-system


bluetooth-based ad-hoc-networks

bluetooth-based home-automation-system













broadband-stacked-patch-antenna-for bluetooth-applications

building-a-dark-piconet-upon bluetooth-interfaces-of-computers

carrier-sense-arq-squeezing-out bluetooth-performance-while-preserving-standard-compliancy

cmos-radio-frequency-receiver-for bluetooth-applications


dynamic-load-balancing-through-backup-relay-in bluetooth-scatternet

efficient bluetooth-technology

energy-evaluation-for bluetooth-link-layer-packet-selection-scheme

evaluating bluetooth-as-a-medium-for-botnet-command-and-control

fingerprints-for-indoor-systems-based-on bluetooth-and-wlan-technologies

integrated bluetooth-and-uwb-antenna

integrated-bluetooth-and-uwb antenna

lessons-learned-from bluetoothwifi-scanning-deployment-in-university-campus

mathematical-framework-for-the-performance-analysis-of bluetooth-with-enhanced-data-rate

mobile-devices-using bluetooth-in-indoor-environment

novel-compact-design-of-usb-dngle-antenna-for bluetooth-applications

p2p-content-distribution-to-mobile bluetooth-users

perception-of-social-intention-and-meaning-in bluetooth-names

research-802-11-and bluetooth-interference-simulation-and-coexistence-2

research-802-11-and bluetooth-interference-simulation-and-coexistence


scalable bluetooth-scatternet-formed-by-autonomous-mobile-robots-and-cell-phones

secure bluetooth-services-in-an-m-learning-environment

security-algorithms-for bluetooth-security-systems

using bluetooth-device-names-to-support-interaction-in-smart-environments

wide-tuning-range-voltage-controlled-oscillator-with-active-inductors-for bluetooth-applications



bluetooth mobile

Mobile robot temperature sensing application via Bluetooth
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Abstract The issue of flu outbreak especially influenza H1N1 has been widely discussed nowadays. For those medical personnel who are exposing to measure temperature of a potential patient is recognized as a risky mission. Besides the medical personnel,

Validation of a real-time wireless telemedicine system, using bluetooth protocol and amobile phone, for remote monitoring patient in medical practice
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Abstract: This paper validates the integration of a generic real-time wireless telemedicine system utilising Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), BLUETOOTH protocol and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for cellular network in clinical practice. In the

A hybrid ZigBee/Bluetooth approach to mobile semantic grids
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Mobile semantic grids are characterized by high heterogeneity and volatility of their component nodes. Hence, discovery procedures more flexible than the ones borrowed from wired approaches are desirable. We present a hybrid ZigBee/Bluetooth grid infrastructure

Hacking Bluetooth enabled mobile phones and beyond–Full Disclosure
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Scanning 00: 04: 0E: 21: 06: FD AVM BlueFRITZ! AP-DSL 00: 01: EC: 3A: 45: 86 HBH-10 00: 04: 76: 63: 72: 4D Aficio AP600N 00: A0: 57: AD: 22: 0F ELSA Vianect Blue ISDN 00: E0: 03: 04: 6D: 36 Nokia 6210 00: 80: 37: 06: 78: 92 Ericsson T39m 00: 06: C6: C4: 08: 27 Abstract. According to the results in this paper, Bluetooth MANET route hop count depends linearly on the distance between origin and destination, and therefore hop count may be a valid metric for MANET guidance services. However, scatternet-based or on-demand

Bluetooth-based p2p content distribution to mobile users
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ABSTRACT Using handheld devices such as cellular phones and smart phones for personal entertainment has become commonplace in today's lifestyle. Virtually all of these devices are equipped with Bluetooth technology that can be used to distribute entertainment

Bluetooth smart nodes for mobile ad-hoc networks
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Power consumption, Price–Is showing significant improvementsHW and firmware bugs and features–Access to developer informationConnectivity (max. 8 nodes per piconet) Complex to handle, mostly because of connection orientated nature, QoS and security

Developing a mobile application via Bluetooth wireless technology for enhancing student-instructor communication
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Abstract:A Bluetooth mobile application is developed to enhance student-instructor interaction during delivery of university courses. The paper presents Mobile application via Bluetooth wireless technology (MAvBT) consists of a server installed on a Bluetooth

Performance analysis of mobile payment protocols over the Bluetooth wireless network
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Abstract In the last years, mobile commerce have appeared thanks to the growth in the use of mobile devices, multiple wireless technology for personal communication and program language such as Java. A parallel step has been the design of new mobile payment

Traffic Control by Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Phone
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Abstract:This work confers an application, which makes possible to use a Bluetooth enabled mobile phone to remote control Traffic Signals connected to the personal computer. It can also be used to control other computer applications such as Emergency and Road

A multi-purpose remote controller based on Bluetooth mobile phone.
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Abstract:In this study, a multi-purpose remote controller based on Bluetooth mobile phone (MRCBMP) is proposed to provide users for a convenient control interface. The IR, RF and Bluetooth modules are integrated into the microcontroller module cooperated with

Authentication model based bluetooth-enabled mobile phone
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Abstract: Authentication is a mechanism to establish proof of identities, the authentication process ensure that who a particular user is. Current PC, laptop user authentication systems are always done once and hold until it explicitly revoked by the user, or asking the user to

The feasibility of mobile adhoc routing over Bluetooth
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Abstract This project investigates the feasibility of having a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANet) over Bluetooth. Contrary to this approach, most papers of MANet1 take Wi-Fi as their underlying technology with the aim to expand the already existing internet, and it's fifty

BlueLocation II-A Localization Infrastructure for Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Devices
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Abstract This thesis describes the design and implementation of a system to localize the position of a mobile user with a Bluetooth enabled device in an indoor environment. Positioned nodes with a Bluetooth radio periodically scan their environment for other

Secure access control using mobile bluetooth devices
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Abstract The physical key is an integrated and natural part of most people's life. It is a well- tested and well-known technology, but it also has its flaws. In particular, for companies needing access to many different private buildings, each with its own lock and key, the

Real-time video streaming over Bluetooth network between two mobile nodes
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Abstract The Bluetooth arrangement provides a very robust and powerful technology within a short range wireless communication. The communication over Bluetooth is complicated with a heavy security threat. Here, in this paper we proposed for a system, Bluetooth

Bluetooth-based mobile gateway for wireless sensor network
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Abstract:Sensor nodes are being increasingly deployed for monitoring different phenomena in a stand-alone manner or as a part of larger wireless sensor networks (WSN). In addition to protocols for communication within the WSN, sensor nodes may also support

Suitability of bluetooth technology in communications between autonomous mobile robots
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I. INTRODUCTION BLUETOOTH Wireless Technology is a newer standard for short-range radio communication. It is designed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) as a low- cost wireless interface between mobile devices that provides low power consumption on

Wireless control of Bluetooth on/off switches in a smart home using J2ME in MobilePhones and PDAs
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Abstract This work focuses on the idea of manipulating a manufactured on/off switch with a Bluetooth receiver, using a JAVA compatible mobile device or PDA through the L2CAP protocol. The main goal is to remove wires from a smart home infrastructure. Keywords:

A scalable Bluetooth scatternet formed by autonomous mobile robots and cell phones
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Abstract: In the present work a novel communication scheme of an autonomous robot swarm via Bluetooth radio is investigated. In the presented solution an autonomous unit is equipped with two independent Bluetooth radios and so a relatively fast communication is

Mobile Robot Temperature Monitoring System Controlled by Android Application viaBluetooth
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Abstract Temperature is a common variable in many systems and processes. In most industries there are several equipments to sense the temperature, but it is preferable to automate the measurement process. This robot can be used as an early detector of fire in

On porting iperf to Windows Mobile and adding Bluetooth support
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Abstract This paper presents high-level details of two contributions to iperf, a modern tool for testing network performance. The first contribution is a port of the tool to the Windows Mobile operating system, while the second one is the extension of the tool to support BlueTooth

A mobile local payment system Bluetooth based
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A Capacity Modeling of Bluetooth Access Points for Location Based Service with Mobile Phone and Bluetooth
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Abstract In this paper, we propose a capacity modeling method for Bluetooth based LBSs (Location Based Services) between Bluetooth APs (Access Points) and mobile phones. In order to do this, we consider the entrance and exit of the users to and from the AP. Using

Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy Capabilities for Tele-mobile Monitoring in Home-care.
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Abstract: Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is extending Bluetooth technology to devices with lower communication requirements and higher constraints in terms of memory capabilities and power autonomy. Thereby, BLE makes feasible the wireless transmission of

Investigating clientless mobile phone interaction with a Bluetooth public display
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ABSTRACT Interactive public displays are becoming more prevalent than ever before. The costs of large displays are coming down and the ubiquity of mobile devices allows for novel interactions with such displays. Bluetooth has been used to interact with such displays in

Steganography in Mobile Phone over Bluetooth
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Abstract After expanding use of mobile phones, establishing hidden communication is an important subject of security that has gained increasing importance. One of the methods for

Efficient Authorized Access Security System Control Using ATMEL 89C55Mobile Bluetooth
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ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the applicability of RC4 algorithm in Bluetooth data encryption method for achieving better energy efficiency of mobile devices during data transfer. Present E0 encryption algorithm of the Bluetooth standard has the difficulty of

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Abstract. With a view to achieve software aided communication cum control System over Bluetooth using Java 2 Micro Edition and 2 mobile devices have been successfully explored and implemented and depicted in this paper. Using Bluetooth on JME enabled mobile

Implementation of Multiplayer Bluetooth Memory Game for Mobile Phones
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ABSTRACT This paper focuses on using Bluetooth as a tool to provide m-advertising. The objective of this paper is to develop Bluetooth m-advertising system that implements user- driven concept using pull-based approach. The novel contribution of this paper is the

Services Provisioning on Mobile Devices via Bluetooth in a Localized Setting Using a Proposed System–BTServ
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Abstract Conventionally, enterprise services that can be utilized by mobile devices such as E- mail, instant messaging, data transfer, news and event notification have been typically achieved using GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) connections to access internet

Direct attacks on mobile phones by bluetooth for forensic analysis
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Nowadays users demand sophisticated applications and services on their mobile phones since they have become a basic necessity for everyday life. The Symbian operating system has the features outlined earlier and provides a security and data protection module,

Mobile Agents for the Dynamic Formation of Bluetooth Scatternets
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Use of bluetooth technology on mobile phones for optimal traffic signal timing
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Mobile phones have become pervasive in society, resulting in a mobile community across the globe. Ireland boasts a mobile penetration of 94 percent. With mobile phone handsets supporting new and various technologies, the area of mobile phone based applications

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Bluetooth Mobile Payment System Using Java: Main Server System
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From the results of the testing activities, it found out that the main server system has a problem on browser compatibility; because of the specification of each web browsers are different between each other. Besides of that, the system is run smoothly without bugs.

The Bluetooth Based LED Control For Arduino Test Platform By Using Mobile APP
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Abstract: The Bluetooth is a commonly known, convenient and famous communication protocol. In this paper, it is used to control LED mounted on Arduino test platform by using the APP of mobile phone. At first, the control program is completed by Arduino

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ABSTRACT This project will focus on developing of the lecturer tracking system using Bluetooth mobile phone. The system will manipulate a Symbian 60 OS at mobile phone a Bluetooth connection to send a lecturer identification number to the computer. Even

Security Analysis of Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Devices
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Abstract:Bluetooth is a popular way for mobile devices to connect wirelessly. Such a connection allows users to transfer data between two or more devices as well as control a device remotely. However, the security of such capabilities is insufficient for widespread

Cryptography for Securing Ubiquitous Bluetooth Mobile Communications
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Abstract: In the last few years with the increasing popularity of the Bluetooth Technology (BT) also the interest in robbing the personal information has arisen. Bluetooth is a connection oriented service. To communicate with one another, one of them needs to initiate the

BlueSky: A Bluetooth-based Multihop MANET System for Supporting Local and ImpromptuMobile Social Networks
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ABSTRACT In this work, we study a specific mobile social network that appears in local and impromptu occasions, which has not been well concerned. After analyzing its key features through comprehensive user studies, we propose a relatively largescale mobile ad hoc

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Abstract:M-Wallet is radical solution of an age-old problem of carrying large sums of cash or a heap of unwanted credit cards. M-Wallet as the name suggests is an electronic wallet associated with the mobile phone configured with user's bank account. Any data saved in

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OPT-i An International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization M. Papadrakakis, MG Karlaftis, ND Lagaros (eds.) Kos Island, Greece, 4-6, June 2014FLOATING OBSERVER INFORMATION PROCESSING ON THE BASIS OF MOBILE BLUETOOTH

Performance Evaluation of OFDM System with Rician, Rayleigh, Rayleigh with Awgn and Awgn Channel for Bluetooth, Fixed and Mobile Wimax Application
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Abstract The emergence of WIMAX has attracted interest from wireless communication researchers. This paper discusses the OFDM for wireless communication. It include Bit Error Rate and Symbol Error Rate versus the ratio of bit energy to noise power spectral density (

WhereAReYou An Offline Bluetooth Positioning Mobile Application
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ABSTRACT The increasing use of social media and the integration of location services to this services suggests that users like to know the location of others while interacting with them. However, if the user has no Internet connection this interaction is not possible. This

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According to Transportation Safety Group at the National Safety Council, the drivers using cell phone during the trips account for nearly 80 percent of car crashes. This paper addresses the issues of wireless networking standards impact on OEMs and highlights the

Bluetooth Low Energy/Body Sensors in Mobile Applications
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–Standby: neither transmitting nor receiving packets–Scanning: listening for packets on the advertising channel–Advertising: sending (and possibly receiving) on advertising channel– Initiating: listening for packets of a specific device on the advertising channel in order to

Review of Various Functions Controlling Of Vehicle by Using Mobile Bluetooth
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Abstract:this paper shows the various functions controlling of Vehicle using mobile Bluetooth Technology. Due to this technology the work of car user becomes easy. This system has two modes of operations viz RKE and PKE mode. This two keys are operated

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ABSTRACT Multiband loaded inverted-F antennas suitable to be applied in a portable device as an internal antenna having high gain property for mobile WiMAX, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and WLAN operations are presented. Numerical simulation is carried out using method of

Pocket Wizard: A System for mobile control of Desktop PC and its Applications usingBluetooth enabled Cell Phone
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Abstract:There are various limited options available to the users when they are not connected to the internet to access their workstations. Most of the options available are tedious, expensive and unsecure. Hence there was a need for a easy to use secure

Android Mobile Phone Controlled Bluetooth Robot Using 8051 Microcontroller
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Abstract: A robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Many robots have been built for manufacturing purpose and can be found in factories around the world. Designing of the latest inverted ROBOT which can be

A Bluetooth Based Mobile SW Platform Application: Smart Finder
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Abstract-With the development of smart high technology related terminals, people's life style has been gradually changed. While electronic devices become smaller and smaller, people often misplace their belongings. This can arise to seriously problems for the person in

Attacks on Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Phones
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As mobile phone users do not usually understand technical details of Bluetooth, some configurations could make their devices vulnerable to several types of Bluetooth attacks. This essay introduces some known attacks on Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Phones (BEMPs)

Secure Mobile Finance Application (MFA) in Bluetooth Technology using SSL
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Mobile Phone Viral Spread Through Bluetooth and MMS
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Despite the lack of a recent mobile phone virus outbreak, there has been a significant increase in the number of smartphone activations. According to online news article [1] posted last year, the number of active smartphones increased from 61.2 million to 95.8

Controlling and Monitoring a PC by Mobile Bluetooth Technology's
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ABSTRACT The usages of cables are no longer practical for data transmission and replaced by wireless technique. Bluetooth is a technology that allows computers or mobile phones to communicate with other that are wireless. Our work is to control a computer using a mobile

mStream: Seamless Delivery of Multimedia Streams to Bluetooth-enabled Mobile Devices
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New wireless technologies are enabling the vision of allthe-time and everywhere connectivity of pervasive computing. However, new scenarios of service provisioning are revealed, where the one of the major issues is on the ubiquitous and continuous access to

A Mobile Smart Finder Application Using Bluetooth Location-Based Information Technology
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Abstract: With the development of smart high technology related terminals, people's life style has been gradually changed. While electronic devices become smaller and smaller, people often misplace their belongings. This can arise to seriously problems for the person in

Visualization of sports performance data on Android mobile-phone acquired through aBluetooth link
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Abstract Recent developments in mobile architecture and the need for objective performance measurement in kayak elite sport coaching induced the opportunity for this study. We developed an application for smartphones that will help athletes evaluate their

Cloud Based Intra-College Information Communication With Bluetooth Attendance System Using Mobile Clients
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Abstract: In this paper, authors about the cloud computing architecture and other aspects that are required for communication over cloud. The users primarily focus on using web services through mobile phones. Cloud computing is the use of computing resources that

Denial of Service Attack on Mobile Phones using Java Mobile Bluetooth API
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Abstract:Bluetooth is deployed in millions of devices nowadays and is one of the popular protocols for wireless connectivity. Its specification offers security, ease of use and interoperability among a variety of wireless de-vices. However, there are some security

Andreas Weibel, Lukas Winterhalter Bluetella: File Sharing for Bluetooth Enabled MobilePhones
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Abstract This semester thesis examines the potential and the limitations of the Bluetooth functionality, which the latest generation of mobile phones offers to the JavaTM 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME). A J2ME MIDlet-called Bluetella-is described that implements a file

Bachelor Thesis Building a secure, mobile VoIP network over Bluetooth
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Abstract Using the Linux smartphone Motorola A780, it is possible to join an auto- configuring Bluetooth IP network. Through this network, a secure connection to a trusted host is established. VoIP phone calls can be created and received over this connection.

An Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Bluetooth Virus with Mobile Nodes
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Abstract: We propose a new epidemic model of mobile phones Bluetooth virus through studying the spatial characteristics and mobile features of the mobile nodes. Combined with hu man mobility patterns, a method was presented to calculate the average degrees of

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Abstract Bluetooth is a wireless, short-range, low-cost communication technology. Multicasting is an efficient way of distributing a data packet to a group of receivers. In this paper, a general core-based tree (GCBT) is proposed for realizing the multicast

File Annotation and Sharing on Mobile Devices in PAN via Bluetooth
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Abstract-Now a day's as a technology advances in low end devices, mobile phones are equipped with large storage capacity and even lot of extra features are also available including camera, additional communication interfaces etc. User can easily use these

Bluetooth LNA for mobile devices
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The goal of this project is to design, build and test a Bluetooth low noise amplifier for mobile devices. Because of the high frequency the matching network will be designed with microstrips. Since it is to be designed for mobile devices it should be as low power as

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Abstract: Infocommunication market and advertising services of multimedia contents in mobile devices faces the need to keep up to technology development in order to satisfy the public's needs by providing more and better information technology. This market has

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An internal triple-band antenna fed by a microstrip line is proposed for operating PCS, IMT- 2000, and Bluetooth bands. By using the two branchs of meander line, the desired resonant frequencies can be achieved. A broadband characteristic for each band is optimized by

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Wireless mobile robots are very common nowadays. There are a lot of completed and on- going projects worldwide on wireless mobile robot control [2][3][4][5]. With wireless communication, these mobile robots can connect to other mobile robots or to a PC. Thus,

Mobile robot control using Bluetooth Low Energy
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Degree Program: Information Technology (Embedded Systems) Author: Till Riemer Title: Mobile robot control using Bluetooth Low Energy Instructor: Jari-Pekka Paalassalo, Lic.Sc. (Tech.), Principal Lecturer Date: May 22, 2012 Total number of pages: XXX Summary: here could be a short

Bluetooth in Mobile Devices
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Abstract The basic idea of Bluetooth was to replace cables with a wireless technology that was both cheap and energy efficient. Today, Bluetooth has become a standard and is used in many electronic devices, especially mobile devices like mobile phones, headsets,

Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull
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ABSTRACT.targeting visitors in museums. The main idea leading to these projects is to implement low cost systems that would provide visitors with informational contents about paintings, artworks, etc. The first application was

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ABSTRACT The pervasive diffusion of Bluetooth equipped mobile devices across the urban population, provides a tool for estimating the average inter-modal travel time among two generic locations and to analyse the average travel patterns of citizens in order to derive

Bluetooth Gaming with the Mobile Message Passing Interface (MMPI)
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Abstract: The Mobile Message Passing Interface (MMPI) is a library implemented under J2ME to provide the fundamental functions that can be found in the standard MPI libraries used on Clusters and Parallel Machines. Nodes of a Cluster are usually connected to one




The need for wireless sensors distributed throughout a manufacturing plant or warehouse is vast. Bluetooth technology allows for the replacement of serial physical connections with a wireless channel that is transparent to the device using the link. Creating personal area networks in consumer households is essential in creating a more automated home. The newest technologies being developed are beginning to include a new low-power variant of Bluetooth . Products on the market employing the Bluetooth standard include cell phone headsets, watches, and a myriad of wireless sensor

Bluetooth operates in a frequency range around 2.4 GHz alongside 802.11g and other standards. This band is unlicensed and used by many variants of electronic equipment. Frequency hopping spread spectrum is used by Bluetooth devices in order to attempt to provide an error free data link. Operating ranges vary with power requirements for Bluetooth devices and fall between a few meters to nearly one hundred meters. The newest Standards allow for data transfer rates up to 3 Mbps. This is sufficient for most basic uses of the standard, but complete replacement of wires in a personal area network would warrant a faster connection for streaming media as an example