application in wireless sensors

Embedded antennas in dry and saturated concrete for application in wireless sensors

FREE-DOWNLOAD X Jin… – Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 2010 –
Abstract—Efficient embedded antennas are needed for future wireless structural health
monitoring. The input return loss and transmission losses of a dipole, a planar inverted-F antenna
(PIFA), a microstrip patch, and a loop antenna are studied at around 2.45G will need to be a paradigm shift that includes very high carrier frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base station and device densities and unprecedented numbers of antennas. But unlike the previous four generations, it will also be highly integrative: tying any new 5G air interface and spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user experience. To support this, the core network will also have to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be rethought and improved, and energy and cost efficiencies will become even more critical considerations. This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave

overview of 5G
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Five disruptive technology directions for 5G
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New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future 5th generation ( 5G ) cellular networks. This paper describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures The ever growing traffic explosion in mobile communications has recently drawn increased attention to the large amount of underutilized spectrum in the millimeter-wave frequency bands as a potentially viable solution for achieving tens to hundreds of times more capacity

Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age Earth: the ICE- 5G (VM2) model and GRACE
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Abstract The 100 kyr quasi periodic variation of continental ice cover, which has been a persistent feature of climate system evolution throughout the most recent 900 kyr of Earth history, has occurred as a consequence of changes in the seasonal insolation regime forced

Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks
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The fourth generation wireless communication systems have been deployed or are soon to be deployed in many countries. However, with an explosion of wireless mobile devices and services, there are still some challenges that cannot be accommodated even by 4G, such as

Scenarios for 5G mobile and wireless communications: the vision of the METIS project
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ABSTRACT METIS is the EU flagship 5G project with the objective of laying the foundation for 5G systems and building consensus prior to standardization. The METIS overall approach toward 5G builds on the evolution of existing technologies complemented by new

Network densification: the dominant theme for wireless evolution into 5G
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Mobile wireless communication has experienced explosive growth over the past decade, fueled by the popularity of smartphones and tablets. A broad consensus in the wireless industry anticipates a strong continuation of this trend for several years to come. The

Non-orthogonal multiple access for 5G : solutions, challenges, opportunities, and future research trends
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The increasing demand of mobile Internet and the Internet of Things poses challenging requirements for 5G wireless communications, such as high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. In this article, a promising technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)

On the performance of non-orthogonal multiple access in 5G systems with randomly deployed users
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In this letter, the performance of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is investigated in a cellular downlink scenario with randomly deployed users. The developed analytical results show that NOMA can achieve superior performance in terms of ergodic sum rates; however As the deployment and commercial operation of 4G systems are speeding up, technologists worldwide have begun searching for next generation wireless solutions to meet the anticipated demands in the 2020 era given the explosive growth of mobile Internet. This

Cache in the air: Exploiting content caching and delivery techniques for 5G systems
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The demand for rich multimedia services over mobile networks has been soaring at a tremendous pace over recent years. However, due to the centralized architecture of current cellular networks, the wireless link capacity as well as the bandwidth of the radio access

Device-to-device communication in 5G cellular networks: challenges, solutions, and future directions
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In a conventional cellular system, devices are not allowed to directly communicate with each other in the licensed cellular bandwidth and all communications take place through the base stations. In this article, we envision a two-tier cellular network that involves a macrocell tier In the near future, ie, beyond 4G, some of the prime objectives or demands that need to be addressed are increased capacity, improved data rate, decreased latency, and better quality of service. To meet these demands, drastic improvements need to be made in cellular

Mobile edge computing A key technology towards 5G
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Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a new technology which is currently being standardized in an ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG) of the same name. Mobile Edge Computing provides an IT service environment and cloud-computing capabilities at the edge of the

Living on the edge: The role of proactive caching in 5G wireless networks
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This article explores one of the key enablers of beyond 4G wireless networks leveraging small cell network deployments, proactive caching. Endowed with predictive capabilities and harnessing recent developments in storage, context awareness, and social networks, peak The vision of next generation 5G wireless communications lies in providing very high data rates (typically of Gbps order), extremely low latency, manifold increase in base station capacity, and significant improvement in users perceived quality of service (QoS), compared

The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication
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In this article, we summarize the 5G mobile communication requirements and challenges. First, essential requirements for 5G are pointed out, including higher traffic volume, indoor or hotspot traffic, and spectrum, energy, and cost efficiency. Along with these changes of

5G ultra-dense cellular networks
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Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter Self-interference cancellation invalidates a long-held fundamental assumption in wireless network design that radios can only operate in half duplex mode on the same channel. Beyond enabling true in-band full duplex, which effectively doubles spectral efficiency, self
Hz when these 

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