CCD-charge-coupled device Sensors

The charge-coupled device (CCD) was invented in 1969 by Boyle and Smith at Bell
Laboratories [Boyle and Smith 70]. Conceptually, a CCD image sensor is a two-dimensional
array of MOS capacitors that collect and transfer charge generated by photoelectric
effect. Each CCD cell (MOS capacitor) is light-sensitive and capable of producing charge
in response to the amount of light they receive. By applying a variable voltage to neighboring
capacitors, the charge can be transferred (coupled) pixel-by-pixel in a serial fashion
to the readout amplifier