interleaved memories




interleaved memory is a design which compensates for the relatively slow speed of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) or core memory, by spreading memory addresses evenly across memory banks.

Memory interleaving is a technique that CPUs use to increase the memory bandwidth available for an application. Without interleaving, consecutive memory blocks, often cache lines, are read from the same memory bank

Interleaving is a process or methodology to make a system more efficient, fast and reliable by arranging data in a noncontiguous manner. Error Correction: Errors in data communication and memory can be corrected through interleaving.

Interleaving is a technique used to convert a transmission channel with memory into one that is memoryless. The performance of Forward Error Correction (FEC) systems operating in the presence of burst errors is improved by passing the coded signal through an interleaving process.

High-bandwidth interleaved memories for vector processors-a simulation study
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Sustained memory bandwidth for a range of access pattems is a key to high-performance vector processing. Interleaving is a popular way of constructing a high-bandwidth memory system. Unfortunately, for some access pattems, conflicts reduce the bandwidth of a

On the effectiveness of XOR-mapping schemes for cache memories
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Page 1. On the effectiveness of XOR 1 Abstract XOR-mapping schemes were initially proposed in the context of interleaved memories to provide a pseudo- random distribution of memory addresses among multiple memory modules

Bank Conflicts in Cache Tags
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c Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1994 Internal Accession Date Only Page 2. 1 Introduction Because main memories are large and quite far from the processor, there are many ways to minimize the impact of con icts in interleaved memories N. S. V. Rao 447 Interconnection Networks Design and Analysis of Cache Coherent Multistage Interconnection Networks AK Nanda and L. N. Bhuyan 458 Interleaved Memories Reducing Interference Among Vector Accesses in Interleaved Memories Abstract High-performance routers need to temporarily store a large number of packets in response to congestion.A novel reservation-based packet buffer architectures with interleaved memories that take advantage of the known packet departure times to achieve simplicity and

CS2600-Computer Organization
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cells, Internal Organization of a memory chip, Organization of a memory unit, Error correction memories, Interleaved memories Cache memory unit Concept of cache memory, Mapping methods, Organization of a cache memory unit, Fetch and write

Memory System Design
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modules using standard memory chips; To discuss various ways of mapping memory modules to the memory address space; To explain the reasons for the adverse impact of unaligned data on performance; To give details on how interleaved memories are constructed

A Stochastic Model of Multiprocessor Access to an Interleaved Memory; CU-CS-006-72
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llith the advent of multi processor machines designed to do multi programming a new use for interleaved memories has become appa- rent, This use can be illustrated by the following situation: Let us assume we have a multi programming machine with two i denti cal pro- cessi

On Null Spaces and their Application to Model Randomisation and Interleaving in Cache Memories
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Page 1. On Null Spaces and their Application to Model Randomisation and Interleaving in Cache Memories Hans Vandierendonck and Koen De Bosschere ELIS Technical Report DG 02-02 July VAKGROEP ELEKTRONICA EN INFORMATIESYSTEMEN

Vector computer memory bank contention
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C-3 no. 4 (Apr. 1982), p. 296-304. 16. Ramamoorthy, CV, and Wah, BW, \An Optimal Algorithm for Scheduling Re- quests on Interleaved Memories for a Pipelined Processor, IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. C- no. 10 (Oct. 1981), p. 787-800. 17

Why systolic architectures
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Memory bandwidth can be increased by the use of either fast components (which could be expensive) or interleaved memories (which could create complicated memory management problems). Speeding up a com- pute-bound computation, however, often be accom

Conflict free accesses to strided vectors on a banked cache appears in IEEE Transactions on Computers, July 2005
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Therefore, parallel access to strided vectors in bank interleaved memories has been abundantly studied in the literature till the mid 90s , , , , . However, these solutions only work for memories (or caches) interleaved on a per word basis and cannot be directly These architectures make use of segmented functional units and interleaved memories and provide consider- able speedup for applications which require a large number of homogeneous computations on regular data. This approach does, however, have limits

Transform Digital Signal Processor Architecture using Optical Interconnections.
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Having two swappable banks of memories, where the number of interleaved memories in each bank is relatively prime compared to the number of data paths avoids the contention . X(0) X(0) L X x(2) X(2) X W0 1 . x(6) = rr _ X6) x(l) _ X(4) x(5) =>~r \/ : X(5) W >O Wt x

Rutgers CAM2000 chip architecture
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The need for large, fast memories has been circumvented by cleverly designed memory sys- tems and hierarchies that employ interleaved memories static column DRAM[Hennessy and Patterson, and multiple level caches[Hennessy and Patterson] Lee, Ben, + T-PDS 92 83-96 Delay effects models of access delays in multiprocessor interleaved memories . Bucher, Ingrid Y., + T-PDS 92 270-280 Design automation; cf Multiprocessing, interconnection Interleaved memories Large-scale systems

Computer organization
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(7 Hrs) U2.1. Hierarchical memory system, Characteristics, Size, Access time, Read Cycle time and address space. Main Memory Organization, types of memory, memory chip design, Cache memory Organization: Address mapping, Cache Coherence, interleaved memories

How patterns in memory references affect the performance of hash functions in cache memories
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address bits together. Rau [Rau91] developed XOR-schemes based on polynomial division over GF(2), that provides pseudo-random placement in the context of interleaved memories . Topham et al. [GVTP9 TG9 TGG97

A new hierarchical disk architecture
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Later, cache memories were introduced to speedup mem- ory accesses for which interleaved memory systems were not able to do. We view the RAID systems as being similar to the interleaved memories while our DCD system is similar to multi-level CPU caches

Randomization and associativity in the design of placement-insensitive caches
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Supercomputer and mini-supercomputer processor designs have used latency tolerant processing techniques such as vectorization or software pipelining to gain great advantage from large high bandwidth interleaved memories High end routers need to store a large amount of data. Dynamic random access memories (DRAMs) are typically used for this purpose. However, DRAM memory devices dont match the bandwidth requirements, especially in terms of random access speeds. In this paper, we Memory interleaving and multiple access ports are the key to a high memory bandwidth in vector processor systems. Each of the active ports supports an independent access stream to memory among which access conflicts arise. Such conflicts lead to a decrease in

High-bandwidth interleaved memories for vector processors-a simulation study
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A family of alternate interleaving schemes called permutation-based interleaving schemes for improving memory bandwidth for a wide range of access patterns in high-performance vector processing systems is described. Permutation-based interleaving schemes can be One of the major factors influencing the performance of an interleaved memory system is the behavior of the request sequence, but this is normally ignored. This paper examines this issue. Using trace driven simulations it is shown that the commonly used assumption, that Past studies of the performance of interleaved memory systems are extended in this note by adopting a more general model. The model assumes a system of N memory modules, each of which is made up of b submodules. Successive memory addresses are assigned to Memory interference occurs when two or more concurrent data requests are addressed to the same main memory bank. In vector superconductors, this problem is serious due to the periodic interaction among vectors accesses, and can significantly reduce memory

Logical data skewing schemes for interleaved memories in vector processors
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Sustained memory bandwidth for range of strides is a key to high-performance vector processing. To reduce the number of memory bank conflicts and thereby increase memory bandwidth, one often resorts to data skewing schemes. In this paper, the authors present a

High-bandwidth interleaved memories for vector processors-a simulation study
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Sustained memory bandwidth for a range of access pattems is a key to high-performance vector processing. Interleaving is a popular way of constructing a high-bandwidth memory system. Unfortunately, for some access pattems, conflicts reduce the bandwidth of a

Pseudo-randomly interleaved memory
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B. Ramakrishna Rau Hewlett Packard Laboratories 1501 Page Mill Road Palo Alto, CA 94303 ABSTRACT Interleaved memories are often used to provide the high bandwidth needed by multiprocessors and high performance uniprocessors such as vector and VLIW processors

Module partitioning and interlaced data placement schemes to reduce conflicts in interleaved memories
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In interleaved memories interference between concurrently active vector streams results in memory bank conflicts and reduced bandwidth. In this paper, we present two schemes for reducing inter-vector interference. First, we propose a memory module partitioning

Performance of interleaved memories with non-uniform access probabilities
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Abstract System structure and program behaviour are two major factors that influence the performance of a tightly-coupled multiprocessor. The latter has been usually ignored in most of the previous studies. The authors study the performance of a tightly-coupled In this paper an optimal algorithm for scheduling requests on interleaved memories is presented. With this algorithm the average completion time for servicing a finite set of randomly generated requests is proved to be minimum. Performance of this algorithm for In interleaved memories interference between concurrently active vector streams results in memory bank conflicts and reduced bandwidth. In this paper, we present two schemes for reducing inter-vector interference. First, we propose a memory module partitioning Statistics counters are essential in network measurement on tracking various network statistics and implementing various network counting sketches. For such applications it is crucial to maintain a large number of statistics counters at very high speeds. On the Internet

Co-design of interleaved memory systems
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Several important techniques, loop and data layout transformations for data access locality, extracting data streams, conflict cache miss reduction as well as data placement and optimally reordered access for interleaved memories are incorporated in the design framework

Design and analysis of a gracefully degrading interleaved memory system
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1. The bandwidth of interleaved memories has been studied extensively using analytical and simulation techniques [ 1 , , [16] FAULTS IN INTERLEAVED MEMORIES Consider a memory that consists of one or more groups of interleaved banks in the memory system

CS2600-Computer Organization
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cells, Internal Organization of a memory chip, Organization of a memory unit, Error correction memories, Interleaved memories Cache memory unit Concept of cache Page 9. Transformations Between Layers How do we solve a problem using a computer