5G is the fifth generation of cellular network technology. The industry association 3GPP defines any system using “5G NR” (5G New Radio) software as, “5G”, a definition that came into general use by late 2018. Others may reserve the term for systems that meet the requirements of the ITU IMT-2020.

5G is a new kind of network: a platform for innovations that will not only enhances today’s mobile broadband services, but will also expand mobile networks to support a vast diversity of devices and services and connect new industries with improved performance, efficiency, and cost.

Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks
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The fourth generation wireless communication systems have been deployed or are soon to be deployed in many countries. However, with an explosion of wireless mobile devices and services, there are still some challenges that cannot be accommodated even by 4G, such as

Network densification: the dominant theme for wireless evolution into 5G
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Mobile wireless communication has experienced explosive growth over the past decade, fueled by the popularity of smartphones and tablets. A broad consensus in the wireless industry anticipates a strong continuation of this trend for several years to come. The

Mobile edge computing A key technology towards 5G
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Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a new technology which is currently being standardized in an ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG) of the same name. Mobile Edge Computing provides an IT service environment and cloud-computing capabilities at the edge of the

Device-to-device communication in 5G cellular networks: challenges, solutions, and future directions
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In a conventional cellular system, devices are not allowed to directly communicate with each other in the licensed cellular bandwidth and all communications take place through the base stations. In this article, we envision a two-tier cellular network that involves a macrocell tier

The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication
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In this article, we summarize the 5G mobile communication requirements and challenges. First, essential requirements for 5G are pointed out, including higher traffic volume, indoor or hotspot traffic, and spectrum, energy, and cost efficiency. Along with these changes of

Safeguarding 5G wireless communication networks using physical layer security
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The fifth generation ( 5G ) network will serve as a key enabler in meeting the continuously increasing demands for future wireless applications, including an ultra-high data rate, an ultrawide radio coverage, an ultra-large number of devices, and an ultra-low latency. This

Networks and devices for the 5G era
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Mobile services based on 4G LTE services are steadily expanding across global markets, providing subscribers with the type of responsive Internet browsing experience that previously was only possible on wired broadband connections. With more than 200

Design considerations for a 5G network architecture.
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This article presents an architecture vision to address the challenges placed on 5G mobile networks. A two-layer architecture is proposed, consisting of a radio network and a network cloud, integrating various enablers such as small cells, massive MIMO, control/user (C/U)

Cloud technologies for flexible 5G radio access networks
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The evolution toward 5G mobile networks will be characterized by an increasing number of wireless devices, increasing device and service complexity, and the requirement to access mobile services ubiquitously. Two key enablers will allow the realization of the vision of 5G

An energy efficient and spectrum efficient wireless heterogeneous network framework for 5G systems
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In this article we explore a system framework of cooperative green heterogeneous networks for 5G wireless communication systems. We first survey the state-of-the-art on spectrum efficiency (SE), energy efficiency (EE), and quality of service (QoS) based mobile

Modulation formats and waveforms for 5G networks: Who will be the heir of OFDM: An overview of alternative modulation schemes for improved spectral
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OFDM and OFDMA are the modulation technique and the multiple access strategy adopted in LTE fourthgenereation (4G) cellular network standards, respectively . OFDM and OFDMA succeeded code division multiple access (CDMA), employed in thirdgeneration

Radio propagation path loss models for 5G cellular networks in the 28 GHz and 38 GHz millimeter-wave bands
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This article presents empirically-based largescale propagation path loss models for fifthgeneration cellular network planning in the millimeter-wave spectrum, based on real- world measurements at 28 GHz and 38 GHz in New York City and Austin, Texas

Key concepts and network architecture for 5G mobile technology
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ABSTRACT 5G technologies will change the way most highbandwidth users access their phones. With 5G pushed over a VOIP-enabled device, people will experience a level of call volume and data transmission never experienced before. 5G technology is offering the

Enabling device-to-device communications in millimeter-wave 5G cellular networks
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Millimeter-wave communication is a promising technology for future 5G cellular networks to provide very high data rate (multi-gigabits-persecond) for mobile devices. Enabling D2D communications over directional mmWave networks is of critical importance to efficiently use

5G : Personal mobile internet beyond what cellular did to telephony
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Cellular technology has dramatically changed our society and the way we communicate. First it impacted voice telephony, and then has been making inroads into data access, applications, and services. However, today potential capabilities of the Internet have not yet

Challenges in 5G : how to empower SON with big data for enabling 5G
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While an al dente character of 5G is yet to emerge, network densification, miscellany of node types, split of control and data plane, network virtualization, heavy and localized cache, infrastructure sharing, concurrent operation at multiple frequency bands, simultaneous use

Path loss models for 5G millimeter wave propagation channels in urban microcells.
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Measurements for future outdoor cellular systems at 28 GHz and 38 GHz were conducted in urban microcellular environments in New York City and Austin, Texas, respectively. Measurements in both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight scenarios used multiple

Enabling technologies and architectures for 5G wireless
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The proliferation of smart devices and the resulting exponential growth in data traffic has increased the need for higher capacity wireless networks. The cellular systems industry is envisioning an increase in network capacity by a factor of 1000 over the next decade to meet

Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G : concepts, opportunities, and challenges
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Smart phones, tablets, and the rise of the Internet of Things are driving an insatiable demand for wireless capacity. This demand requires networking and Internet infrastructures to evolve to meet the needs of current and future multimedia applications. Wireless HetNets will play

5G radio access
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Each generation of mobile communication, from the first-generation introduced in the 1980s to the 4G networks launched in recent years, has had a significant impact on the way people and businesses operate. The next generation 5G is a technology solution for 2020 and The rise of 5G networks is increasing our ability to move, manipulate, and analyze data across wireless platforms, according to CompTIA. As 5G rolls out more fully in the coming years, it will drive the development of more complex apps to solve problems and increase growth across industries.

The fifth generation networks (5G) is currently under development and will hit the market at the horizon 2020. Compared with the current 4G LTE technology, 5G is targeting to reach both high speed (1 Gbps), low power and low latency (1ms or less), for massive IoT, tactile internet and robotics.