what is breadboard in electronics

Breadboard is one of the important tool used by both learners of electronics and also professionals who are developing new products. It is a construction base for prototyping of electronics

A breadboard is usually covered with holes lined with metal, in which wires and electrical components such as resistors, diodes and capacitors can be plugged. The holes are divided into rows, and holes within particular rows are wired together on the underside of the breadboard so that an electric current can flow down the rows

Breadboards usually are plugged in to a standard power supply that either connects to a wall outlet or a battery. Certain holes in the breadboard are connected to positive or negative voltage so that when a circuit is correctly wired and the breadboard is plugged in, current flows through the circuit.

Breadboards are used with low levels of voltage and current so that components are safe to touch even while the breadboard is plugged in, but it’s a good idea to keep the breadboard unplugged and, if it has a power switch, turned off until a circuit is complete to avoid shocks or damaged components

Breadboards come in many sizes from tiny boards which has couple of rows of holes to large breadboards which can accommodate many electronic components like resistors, micro-controllers, LEDs etc.

But breadboards are broadly available in 3 sizes

Full Size Breadboard
Half Size Breadboard
Mini Breadboard

The leads can fit into the breadboard because the inside of a breadboard is made up of rows of tiny metal clips

This is what the clips look like when they are removed from a breadboard.

When you press a component’s lead into a breadboard hole, one of these clips grabs onto it. Some breadboards are actually made of transparent plastic, so you can see the clips inside. Most breadboards have a backing layer that prevents the metal clips from falling out. The backing is typically a layer of sticky, double-sided tape covered by a protective layer of paper. If you want to permanently “stick” the breadboard to something (for example, a robot), you just need to peel off the paper layer to expose the sticky tape underneath

A breadboard is a platform you can use to build and test electronic circuits, usually without having to do any soldering. Certain parts of the breadboard are wired together so that electricity can flow from component to component in orderly rows. Amateurs and experts alike use them to experiment with circuit ideas, and in some cases, they can be used to build useful devices directly on the breadboard.

Earlier it was literally a bread board, a polished piece of wood used for slicing bread. In the 1970s the solder less breadboard (a.k.a. plug board, a terminal array board) became available and nowadays the term “breadboard” is commonly used to refer to these plug boards.