IMAGE ADAPTIVE WATERMARKING USING FUZZY LOGIC ON FPGA
This paper presents novel hardware architecture for watermarking unit which can be used with the JPEG2000 compression standard. We have presented dual watermark detection which is also novelty of our algorithm. Hardware assisted watermarking offersadvantages over the software implementations in terms of less area, power consumption, real time. The objective is to develop the real time low cost and robust watermarking hardware which can be incorporated with existing systems such as digital camera, scanners, camcorders etc. We have implemented CDF 5/3 wavelet filters with lifting scheme which requires less hardware and memory efficient. The present algorithm was tested with standard benchmark software StirMark. The experimental result shows that the proposed scheme of watermarking is robust against most of the geometric attacks scaling, rotation, remove lines and cropping.
Digital right management (DRM) is a collection of technologies and a technique that enables the licensing of digital information including the multimedia content such as image, video and music. DRM consist of two prominent technologies those are encryption and watermarking. Encryption technologies can be used to prevent unauthorized access to digital content. However, encryption has its limitations in protecting intellectual property rights, because once digital content is decrypted, there is nothing to prevent an authorized user from illegally replicating it . This needs the gives rise to the new technology of hiding the information in the digital content which is called as watermarking. Watermarking techniques can be divided into various categories in numerous ways. According to human perception, the digital watermarking can divided into visible  and invisible watermarking .On the basis of performance against various attacks watermarking techniques can be divided into invisible fragile or robust watermarking . The watermarking method can be divided into three primary methods depending on the insertion and extraction domain used for watermarking. These are spatial domain, transform domain and color space methods. The spatial domain method  involves an algorithm that directly operates on the pixel values of the host image. It is been observed that the spatial domain watermarks are weaker than the frequency domain watermarking methods . However the spatial domain watermarking scheme requires less computations compared to frequency domain scheme. In the transform domain method the pixel values are transformed into another domain by applying appropriate transform technique like discrete cosine transform (DCT) ,discrete wavelet transform (DWT)  and discrete Hadamard transform(DHT) . A watermark is then embedded by modifying these coefficients. A DCT based watermarking algorithm has been described in many literatures; however DWT based watermarking algorithms are more effective for several reasons . There are several software based watermarking scheme are available in literatures  but hardware implementation has advantages over software. Hardware implementations offer an optimized specific small design, fast and potentially cheap watermarking solutions. A hardware based watermarking unit can be easily integrated with digital cameras, scanners graphics processing units, camcorders etc. Watermarking unit consumes lesser power than software, which requires a general purpose processor so that hardware based watermarking unit is ideal for battery operated applications. It is most suitable for real-time applications, where the computation time is deterministic and short
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