The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing
Note 1: Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its definitions, use cases, underlying
technologies, issues, risks, and benefits will be refined in a spirited debate by the public and
private sectors. These definitions, attributes, and characteristics will evolve and change over
Note 2: The cloud computing industry represents a large ecosystem of many models, vendors,
and market niches. This definition attempts to encompass all of the various cloud approaches.
Definition of Cloud Computing:
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared
pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and
services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or
service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five
essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities,
such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without
requiring human interaction with each service’s provider.
Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through
standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client
platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).
Resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple
consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual
resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.
There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no
control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be
able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or
datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network
bandwidth, and virtual machines.
Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases
automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the
consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited
and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.
Measured Service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by
leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the
type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts).
Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing
transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the
provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are
accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a
web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control
the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers,
or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating
systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select
networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be
managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off
Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and
supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security
requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the
organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.
Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large
industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.
Hybrid cloud. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private,
community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by
standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application
portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).
Note: Cloud software takes full advantage of the cloud paradigm by being service oriented with a
focus on statelessness, low coupling, modularity, and semantic interoperability.
The NIST definition of cloud computing
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed this document in furtherance of its statutory responsibilities under the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 200 Public Law 107-347. NIST is responsible for developing
NIST cloud computing reference architecture: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Special Publication 500-292)
technical and non-technical factors. A fundamental reference point, based on the NIST definition of Cloud Computing , is needed to describe an overall framework that can be used government-wide. This document presents the
The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing
Work on Linux scalability-as a hardware company we have very large x86 systems 128- 160 threads 1-2TB memory. NUMA awareness, high speed network, flash disk, tracing, fault management, filesystems (btrfs) products like ExaData and ExaLogic -All-our code [HTML]
Cloud computing explained
Cloud Computing Explained. Authors: by Rosalyn Metz Published: Thursday, June 2 2010 Key Takeaways. The NIST definition of cloud computing is concise and uses industry-standard terms 4. This article takes an in-depth look at the NIST definition of cloud computing 23). [Online]. Available: http://www.beet.tv/2008/ 09/cloud-computing.html P. Mell and T. Grance, The NIST definition of cloud computing (v15), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Tech. Rep.. S After several years of work, industry collabora- tion, and multiple review cycles, they released the final version of the widely cited The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing in 2011.4 In this publication, they define the now ubiquitous terms of SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS as follows
The library cloud pros and cons
Although computer scientists and technologists have a strict definition of cloud computing involving on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (see the NIST Definition of Cloud Computing ), for non-IT librarians its enough to think
Cutting through the fog: understanding the competitive dynamics in cloud computing
competition. Combined, Part II provides analytical leverage into the strategies of Cloud Computing. The NIST definition of Cloud Computing distinguishes between Cloud Computing service and delivery models. Service models a rapidly evolving technology and different parties can define it differently. The researcher surveyed on the NIST definition of cloud computing version 15 1 : Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand
Cloud Computing Characteristics Are Key
virtualization. Cloud isnt really a technology at all. It is a manner of service delivery and its associated billing. 1 The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing . AUTHORS: Peter Mell and Tim Grance. Version 1 10-7-09. 2 IaaS
Elasticity in cloud computing: What it is, and what it is not
time warping. Knowl. Inf. Syst. 3 (Mar. 2005), 358 386. MELL, P., AND GRANCE, T. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing . Tech. rep., US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Special Pub- lication Special Publication 500-292 (2011) Mell, P., Grance, T.: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-145 (2011) Ruan, K., Carthy, J., Kechadi, T., Crosbie, M.: Cloud Forensics
DRAFT-evaluation of cloud computing services based on NIST 800-145
1 This document provides clarification for qualifying a given computing capability as a cloud service by determining if it aligns with the NIST definition of cloud computing ; and for categorizing a cloud service according to the most appropriate service model (SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS) data representation (not to mention problems related to data localization). References. 1. Mell, P., Grance, T.: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology [HTML]
Securing elasticity in the cloud
Peter Mell and Tim Grance are with the national Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, gaithersburg, MD. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing By Peter Mell and Tim Grance Page 6. practice june 2010 | vol. 53 | no
The basics of cloud computing
memory devices. Additionally, because you only 1For more information please see The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing at http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/800- 145/Draft-SP-800-145_cloud-definition.pdf. Page 2. 2 need Therefore special attention was given to explicit definitions of the term Cloud Computing within the papers. As the NIST definition of Cloud Computing (Mell and Grance 2011) turned out to be the most widely used definition, this is subject to further investigation REFERENCES Peter Mell, and Tim Grance, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing , Version 1 10-7-0 http://www.wheresmyserver.co.nz/ storage/media/faq-files/cloud-def-v15. pdf. Sun Cloud Architecture Introduction White Paper (in Chinese)
On an ontological view of cloud computing
Journal of Business Economics Research, 7(6):1-11. 8. Mell, P. and T. Grance. 2009a. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing . National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, Version 1 10-7-09
The education value of cloud computing
Consumer software provides personal solutions, such as office applications, that are often available at no cost in their cloud versions. 2 See the NIST definition of cloud computing by Mell and Grance. 3 See Chong. Page 3 2009a. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing