free research papers-FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array is a digital integrated circuit that can be programmed to do any type of digital function. When the FPGA-based system is used for implementing the desired FLC, many possible designs can be tried due to the reusability of the FPGA. Often, a hardware implementation on the FPGA-based system is supported by many existing EDA tools for modelling, synthesis, verification, and implementation. The major advantage of using the EDA tools is that the same hardware description language code for modelling can be directly used for synthesis, verification, and implementation. Also, the general architecture of the FLC is invariant except for the change in the number of input and output variables, the number of fuzzy terms, the membership functions, the bit resolutions, and the control rule base according to the different applications. The FPGA consists of three major configurable elements:
1) Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs) arranged in an array that provides the functional elements and implements most of the logic in an FPGA.
2) Input-output blocks (IOBs) that provide the interface between the package pins and internal signal lines.
3) Programmable interconnect resources that provide routing path to connect inputs and outputs of CLBs and IOBs onto the appropriate network.
The fpga papers are here
Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits (ICs) that contain an array of logic cells surrounded by programmable I/O blocks. FPGAs contain as many as tens of thousands of logic cells and an even greater number of flip-flops. Because of cost, field-programmable gate arrays do not provide a 100% interconnection between logic cells; however, FPGAs still provide significantly higher capacities than programmable logic devices (PLDs) that are interconnected through a central global routing pool. Often, design engineers use field-programmable gate arrays to program electrical connections through several iterations in order to minimize non-recurring costs. FPGAs are used in applications ranging from data processing and storage, to instrumentation, telecommunications, and digital signal processing. Other terms for FPGA include logic cell array (LCAs) and programmable application-specific integrated chip (pASIC).
Field-programmable gate arrays are available with different numbers of system gates, shift registers, logic cells, and look up tables. Logic blocks or logic cells (LCs) do not include I/O blocks, but generally contain a look up table to generate any function of inputs, a clocked latch (flip-flop) to provide registered outputs, and control logic circuits for configuration purposes. Logic cells are also known as logic array blocks (LABs), logic elements (LEs) and configurable logic blocks (CLBs). Look up tables (LUTs) or truth tables are used to implement a single logic function by storing the correct output logic state in a memory location that corresponds to each particular combination of input variables.