power system protection research papers 11






A proposed method of partially-decentralised power system protection
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Over the past 122 years the US electric power system has evolved to the point that it is now integrated into every aspect of modern society. Due to the highly interconnected design of the US electric power system it is possible for a group of events to cause a loss of power in

A power system protection scheme combining impedance measurement and travelling waves: software and hardware implementation
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Summary For the stability of the electrical network, it is important to clear faults on high voltage transmission lines quickly with the aid of a high-speed protection system. The conventional method of fault detection is mainly based on impedance measurement

Power network and protection performance analysis on the ESKOM Transmission systembased on Digital Fault records
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The introduction of Digital Fault Recorders (DFRs) has dramatically improved fault recording in the areas of data quality, information availability and maintenance costs. Already, devices that combine fault recording, Quality of Supply (QOS) recording and metering are being

Developments in power system protection
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 Revision: 16 September 2002 Developments in Power System Protection Jim Wilks Dip EE, Grad Dip MS Manager DataShare Power Engineering Software  page 1 Synopsis Rapid changes are clearly taking place in the field of Power System Protection.

Modern System Protection Schemes Realization in Large Hydro Power Plant Automation: Local and System Aspects
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SUMMARY Appearance of new concepts such as on-line Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) and Strategic Power Infrastructure Defense (SPID) system has been conditioned by new competitive environment in power systems. At the same time, progress in

Design of new load shedding special protection schemes for a double area power system
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ABSTRACT In this paper several Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) schemes are designed as special protection schemes to preserve the integrity of islands, formed following the outage of tie lines connecting two areas in a double area power system. For the

Fast Topology Detection Based on Open Line Detection Relays, a Strategic Function inPower System Protection
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Abstract In the present deregulated and market driven energy industry, modern power systems need to be operated closer to their design limits. Moreover, their topology is becoming more complex due to additional interconnection links. Efficient defense plans

Knowledge-based power system protection design course ware
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ABSTRACT This research discusses the development of a knowledge-based expert system, using an interactive multimedia approach and its usage to serve as a multimedia course ware in power system protection design. The system is characterized by its three

Multi-agent based control and protection of power distribution system
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ABSTRACT On the premise of future improvement of information infrastructures, we proposed a multi-agent based protection scheme for distribution systems with high penetration of distributed generators (DGs). In the proposed protection scheme, various relays designed

Dispersed Generation Interconnection and its Impact on Power Loss and Protection System
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ABSTRACT The increasing penetration of small dispersed generation or distributed generation (DG) in the power system creates new challenges and problems for operation of the networks. The generation of electricity comes to a new era with a variety of small-scale

Influence of instrument transformers on power system protection
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Instrument transformers are a crucial component of power system protection. They supply the protection system with scaled-down replicas of current and voltage signals present in a power network to the levels which are safe and practical to operate with. The conventional

The Profitableness of the Environmental Protection in a Thermal Power System by Setting the Optimum Level of the Environmental Taxes and Charges
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Abstract. In the power system, the approach to the internalization supposes the integration in the energy cost of the value of the damage caused to the environment by the production process, by the transport, distribution and consumption of energy. The internalization of

Diagnosis of power system protection
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Power systems are naturally exposed to several fault conditions, namely short-circuits. Automatic protection and control systems are responsible for selective tripping of faulted devices and their subsequent reconnection. An application to automatically diagnosing

Artificial Intelligent Application to Power System Protection
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ABSTRACT The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods in power system protection has been addressed in this paper. Particular emphasis has been put on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). Several novel concepts have been introduced

Third Generation System Protection Scheme Project for Zeya Hydro Power Plant
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The paper focuses on very seldom exploited measure, which is used to counteract instability in power systems, known as dynamic braking or braking resistor. The aim of the paper is to provide complementary information regarding the dynamic braking devices which are

Statistics of Short-Circuit Signals for Power System Protection Purposes
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Abstract Basic ideas of probability and statistics with application to chosen power system protection problems are presented. Since fault appearance and parameters are of probabilistic nature, calculated distributions of selected short-circuit signals should bring

Loss of Synchronism Detection, a Strategic Function for Power System Protection
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SUMMARY Maintaining power system reliability in a deregulated market environment is a day-by-day challenge for electrical utilities throughout the world. Stability and thermal limits, voltage collapse and loop flows are usual constraints that system planners and operators

Power System Protection and Dynamic Performance Assessment
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SUMMARY The emerging technology Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control- WAMPC can extend the application areas of System Protection Scheme (SPS) based solutions and may be applied in very large areas like the UCTE transmission system.

Power System Protection, Relays
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A modern electric power system is a very large and complex network consisting of generators, transformers, transmission and distribution lines, buses, reactors, capacitors, and other devices. A well-designed power system provides high-quality electric energy to

Protection and Control System Using Open Network Architecture for Power Systems
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THE systems that protect and control power systems demand the high reliability and functionality. At the same time, relentless pressure to hold down costs of protection and control systems has accompanied the deregulation of the power industry, so our efforts

Mathematical Verification of a Nuclear Power Plant Protection System Function with Combined CPN and PVS
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ABSTRACT In this work, an automatic software verification method for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) protection system is developed. This method utilizes Colored Petri Net (CPN) for system modeling and Prototype Verification System (PVS) for mathematical verification. In

Modeling and Simulation of a Solid-state Breaker for Medium-voltage Feeder Protection using MATLAB s Power System Blockset
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ABSTRACT This paper proposes detail of formulating solid-state breakers (SSB) in electric power distribution systems by using GUI-based environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK. Utilization of MATLAB software simplifies problem solving complexity and also reduces

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The Rol of Effective Parameters in Automatic Load-Shedding Regarding Deficit of Active Power in a Power System
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ABSTRACT Load-shedding by frequency relays is the most commonly used method for controlling the frequency of power networks within set limits and maintaining the network stability under critical conditions. In the presently used methods, when frequency drops

AUTOMATIC LOAD RECONNECTION AFTER EMERGENCY UNDERVOLTAGE LOAD SHEDDING
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The load shedding amount can be easily determined off-line, for predefined contingencies and system status, but the computation methods can hardly be embedded in a real-time system protection scheme facing an unknown disturbance. Instead, the load shedding

Integration of DSO control systems and TSO automatic load shedding system to improve the security of the national grid
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ABSTRACT The document describes the approach adopted by ENEL Distribuzione in integrating remote control systems in the TSO system architecture, in order to improve

The Automatic Load Shedding for Stability Security at the Load Buses
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Abstract: This paper proposes a new algorithm for the automatic under voltage load shedding operation of the radial grid to secure the static stability over the bus voltage change in a complex power system. The algorithm is developed on the basis of voltage

PRC-006-NPCC-1 Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding Regional Reliability Standard Proposed and Implementation Plan for Approval
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3. Purpose: To provide a regional reliability standard that ensures the development of an effective automatic under frequency load shedding (UFLS) program in order to preserve the security and integrity of the bulk power system during declining system frequency events

Under voltage load shedding guidelines
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a voltage collapse in France on January 12, 1987 that lasted over 6 hours. Automatic load shedding shall be in steps related to one or more of the following: frequency, rateAny local program should be coordinated within the subregion and Region, with generator protection

Why has it happened again
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Source: UCTE Page 19.Note the difference between scheduled and actual flows (eg FR- D, FR-BE) hours. Late announcement could not change exchange programsincrease generation If frequency drops too much, automatic load shedding is activated

Load as a reliability resource in restructured electricity markets
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a sensor with feedback to the voltage regulator with a simple voltage schedule that provides Automatic load shedding circuits for pump runback could be developed that would provide for these high levels ofThey have to keep the store comfortable and cool during these hours.

Causes, analyses and countermeasures with respect to blackout in Croatia on January 12, 2003
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of the HPPs in Dalmatia shall enable not only realization of requested schedule, but also Scheduled power connected to the BH system (two utilities in the first UCTE zone) wasDuring next two hours, the system consumption should have been increased reaching the peak that

The Rol of Effective Parameters in Automatic Load-Shedding Regarding Deficit of Active Power in a Power System
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way of preventing a total or partial black-out that is triggered by frequency drop is quick and automatic load shedding. Until 1978, the sample network's interconnected network was quite vulnerable in this respect. Then the first studies were conducted and a program of load

Interconnection of Power Systems with Different Under–Frequency Load Shedding Schemes
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Up-to-date automatic load shedding system practically in the most power systems foresees disconnection without time delay or with smallSolutions for large power system interconnections, CEPSI 2004, Shanghai [3] PSS/E30.1, Program Application Guide

Reconfiguration in the Transmission System of the Slovak Republic
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a return to operation of a scheduled outage within a delay of two hours; in caseo freezing of scheduled exchanges; o schedule of exchange reductioninterruptible customers triggered by line outages;manual load shedding of domestic loads;automatic load shedding of loads

Special protection schemes in electric power systems
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and proven to work properlywhen the automatic load shedding system VSHED the similar procedure/algorithm is used in the commercially available program TSAT intended Scale Power System Under a Proposed Multiarea Interchange Schedule Using CPFLOW

Adequate regulation reserve levels in systems with large wind integration using demand response
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The authors identify costs associated to the secondary reserve: frequency deviations, automatic load shedding as ato 20% of rated wind capacity for a limited number of hours and 3Unit Commitment Unit Commitment problems determine the minimum cost schedule for power

Flexible Ship Electric Power System Design
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Further electrical personnel must manually close breakers to loads which were unnecessarily isolated during the automatic load shedding. PROTECTIVE DEVICESThis process has been reported to take as long as 24 hours on some occasions.

Integrated substation automation enables new strategies for power TD
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Pref Selection Release Transmission network U automatic load shedding Dynamic selective feeder tripping according to actual loadsX X *) *) * Figure 13: Distributed integrated SA concept 2. Network restoration: The load shedding program has stored the tripped feeders.

Presentation and Comparison of the Various Methods of Load-Shedding for Frequency Control in Iran Power Networks
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is a quick and automatic load-shedding. Until 1978, Iran's interconnected network was quite vulnerable in this respect. Then the first studies were conducted and a program of load-shedding was implemented. It is noteworthy that the latest studies of this subject dates back to

Load shedding application within a microgrid to secure its is landed mode of operation
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The program reportedly optimizes the system wide load shed schedule, checking alsoIt is well established that the load shedding procedure normally happens in two ways: (a) Automatic load shedding; where the protection system usually initiates the automatic isolation of

A New Expert System for Load Shedding in OilGas Plants-A Practical Case Study
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After the duration is elapsed the plant must be shutdown in case the second turbine is failed to start. automatic load shedding program preset to drop specific loads to steer the power system operation into safe margins. The

Co-Ordinate Load Control and Load Shedding Balance by Using Microcontroller
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For developing automatic load shedding technique we have used different equipments such as microcontroller, power supply(12 volts), relay, transistor, voltage regulator, current transformer 4. MICROCONTROLLER IC PIC16F676 8 BIT M WITH 2K BYTES FLASH PROGRAM

Prioritizing and visualizing energy management and control system data to provide actionable information for building operators
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point on schedule the next daycan shift HVAC equipment to operate during off--peak hours and benefit from thermal inertia during peak demand hours.that is why EnMS require a set of rules established by the operator to accomplish automatic load shedding/shifting effectively

Effect of Load Shedding Strategy on Interconnected Power Systems Stability When a Blackout Occurs
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An automatic load shedding scheme including pumped storage units, IEEE Trans. On Eng.Load shedding schedules considering probabilistic outages, IEEE/IPEC, vol.2, pp.

Steam turbines under abnormal frequency conditions in distributed generation systems
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the damage to the equipment during such disturbances, considerable effort has been expended in the development and implementation of automatic load shedding.under-frequency conditions, and to this end, a system must be equipped with a load shedding program, and this

Building a Frequency Monitoring Network to Study Dynamics of Rapidly Growing Power Systems
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Figure 2 shows a screen shot of the FDR small server program retrieving data fromup in the control centers, from which frequency is monitored, but no automatic load shedding mechanisms are should not be expected to capture frequency measurements for 24-hours from all

Self-Healing Strategy for Dynamic Security Assessment and Power System Restoration
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data structure [7], then through a series of reduction processes, the program forms apredetermined schedule to balance the load to the available generation in the affectedplanning and operating procedures be coordinated to provide a uniform automatic load shedding scheme

Super Grid Increases System Stability
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This frequency drop can be corrected by suitable automatic load-shedding schemes.Also, the need to program customer shut downs has been avoided as there have been no incidents of low frequency in the member states since the GCC interconnection became operational.

Energy control center functions for power system
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Operation and Maintenance Schedules for maximum capacity UtilizationOperation and Maintenance Schedules for Generating3 below gives an overview of the program functions available in the systemEmergency Control –automatic load shedding, generator shedding

Ras and stretched power systems
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This class requires minimum combined availability of 99.95%, or maximum functional unavailability of about 4.5 hours per year.Class 2 shall have minimum availability of 99.5% or an unavailability of less than 44.8 hours per year.

Advanced load shedding scheme for voltage collapse prevention
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A.1 Introduction202 A.2 The event-driven emergency demand response program204avoid short-term voltage instability problems. Long-term voltage stability: voltage collapses occurs in a few minutes to hours.

Microcontroller Based Maximum Demand Indicator and Controller for Efficient Power Management
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If it is plotted for the 24 hours of a single day, it is known as an 'hourly load curve' and if daily demands plotted over a month, it is called daily load curves.Visual and audible alarm.Automatic load shedding in a predetermined sequence.Automatic restoration of load.

Distribution System Automation
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B) Consumer Location Automation: Automation at the consumer's location includes the ability to remotely: read meters, program time-of-useThe AMR device can be initially programmed to report back to the utility based on a schedule or some pre-set6. automatic load shedding

Restoration project
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Frequency once again began declining as the automatic load shedding started to disconnect industrial and customerof the difficulties, all power was restored throughout Italy within 20 hours after thefinal consideration, it should be noted that the Italian restoration program is not

Power System Blackouts–Lessons Learned
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The massive blackout left 30 million people without electricity for as long as 13 hours.of an attempt to provide more reactive power to support the scheduled voltage;clear a picture of system conditions as possible;Coordinated programs of automatic load shedding should be

137 FERC¶ 61,067 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION
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date proposed by NERC. DATES: Comments are due [INSERT DATE 60 days after publication in thenot be made to the UFLS program, including a schedule for implementation (sub-(G) automatic load shedding in PRC-006-1 and manual load shedding in EOP-003-2;

Effect of Load Shedding Strategy on Interconnected Power Systems Stability
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It can take hours for an air-conditioner to bring a building back to desired temperature after it has been shut off, costing[5] S. Jier and CC Huang, An automatic load shedding scheme including [7] GB Shrestha and GBKC Lee, Load shedding schedules considering probabilistic

A SURVEY PAPER ON OVERLOAD MONITORING PARAMETERS AND MODERNISATION IN LOAD SHEDDING APPROACH
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automatic load shedding always occurs on the transmission system level, with the result being large amounts of electricity and large blocks of customers taken off supply in a veryThis will occur on the low priority feeders if the load shedding duration extends for several hours.

AUTOMATIC LOAD RESTORATION IN POWER SYSTEM
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RESTORATION IN POWER SYSTEM ABSTRACT This paper describes an automatic load restoration method implemented following automatic load shedding.Load restoration service If the load shedding program were to be successfully implemented, the system frequency

Micro Grid Power Load Shedding Implemented In FPGA Using Fuzzy Logic
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techniques and hence it is able to local area load shedding intelligently according to time schedule. load shedding for specific area(s) in case of overload; otherwise there is no requirement of advantages of using this method is reduced complexity of written a program or design.

Topsis method for load shedding scheme in Johore system
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The data is in terms digital and analogue inputs come through a field interface which is validated before using in a program [4]. automatic load shedding always occursinvestment is scheduled and networks are well managed; such events are considered an

Under Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Using Meta-heuristic Optimization Methods
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Similarly, another study [18] presented an optimization tool based on GA known as automatic loadshedding calculated through GAs, which was developed in Matlab.Only a few effective load buses are selected to participate in the load shedding program.

A probabilistic nodal analysis for helping the system operator to validate the results of the day-ahead electricity market
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to ensure a predefined level for risk indexes (LOLP, EENS, etc.); to schedule load shedding the simulation is extended to a single day (24 hours) and theactivated by a programmable protection system;the application of an automatic load shedding program, designed curtail

DSOMDecision Support for Operations and Maintenance Application to a USMC Base Centralized Energy System
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the DSOM, EMCS and SCADA projects at Parris Island allows for automatic load shedding and finelydemand control and the automated load shedding is applied only 8 hours a dayThe Energy Controls Technician can program all load shedding groups and stages according to

Bacterial Foraging Algorithm Oriented Power System Restoration Planning with FACTS Device
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strong and weak couplings. Through the selection of the time-scale option, the coherent group of generators can be obtained on any power systems and an automatic islanding program is also developed A. Islanding In determining

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