Recycling Ambient Microwave Energy With Broad-Band Rectenna Arrays

This paper presents a study of reception and rectification of broad-band statistically time-varying low-power-density microwave radiation. The applications are in wireless powering of industrial sensors and recycling of ambient RF energy. A 64-element dual-circularly-polarized spiral rectenna array is designed and characterized over a frequency range of 2–18 GHz with single-tone and multitone incident waves. The integrated design of the antenna and rectifier, using a combination of full-wave electromagnetic field analysis and harmonic balance nonlinear circuit analysis, eliminates matching and filtering circuits, allowing for a compact element design. The rectified dc power and efficiency is characterized as a function of dc load and dc circuit topology, RF frequency, polarization, and incidence angle for power densities between In addition, the increase in rectenna efficiency for multitone input waves is presented.

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