5G will need to be a paradigm shift that includes very high carrier frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base station and device densities and unprecedented numbers of antennas. But unlike the previous four generations, it will also be highly integrative: tying any new 5G air interface and spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user experience. To support this, the core network will also have to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be rethought and improved, and energy and cost efficiencies will become even more critical considerations. This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave

5 Myths About 5G
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Without a doubt, 5G is the hottest topic in wireless circles today. Many of the fields most celebrated researchers and highest-paid executives are focused on forging this ultra-fast and high-bandwidth successor to 4G LTE. Among them, this opportunity to construct the next

Mobile edge computing A key technology towards 5G
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Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a new technology which is currently being standardized in an ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG) of the same name. Mobile Edge Computing provides an IT service environment and cloud-computing capabilities at the edge of the

5G white paper
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NGMN has had a central role in the definition of operator requirements, which has contributed significantly to the overall success of LTE. In the meantime, LTE has become a true global and mainstream mobile technology, and will continue to support the customer Mobile communications have been instrumental in transforming our contemporary societies in the past decades. From the first-generation (1G) of analogue mobile phone system to the newest commercial fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks deployed The book series Modeling and Optimization in Science and Technologies (MOST) publishes basic principles as well as novel theories and methods in the fast-evolving field of modeling and optimization. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: methods for analysis

5G wireless communication systems
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As a subscriber becomes more aware of the mobile phone technology, he/she will seek for an appropriate package all together, including all the advanced features of a cellular phone can have. Hence, the search for new technology is always the main intention of the prime The explosive increase of mobile data services and the use of smart phones require the fifth generation ( 5G ) network to support higher spectral efficiency, higher energy efficiency, and higher mobility. The currently employed modulation techniques based on the multiple-input

A review on 5G technology
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5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards. Currently, 5G is not a term officially used for

Device-to-device communications for 5G internet of things
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The proliferation of heterogeneous devices connected through large-scale networks is a clear sign that the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT) is getting closer to becoming a reality. Many researchers and experts in the field share the opinion that the next-to-come fifth Waveform design, multiple access, and random access techniques for fifth-generation ( 5G ) wireless networks and beyond are cutting-edge research topics that motivate a very wide range of research problems. Despite being different, these three areas are intertwined and

An alternative method for PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (4G/ 5G ) typing
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5. Duthie GG, Arthur JR, James WPT. Effects of smoking and vitamin E on blood antioxidant status. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 1061s-3s. 6. Crespo ME, Bicho MP. Membrane-mediated effects of catecholamines on the DNA of human leukocytes: the role of reactive oxygen

Functional architecture for 5G mobile networks
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In this paper we propose novel network architecture for next generation 5G mobile networks. The proposed architecture is based on user-centric mobile concept in heterogeneous wireless environment. The implementation of the proposed architecture is performed in the

How 5G technology enables the health internet of things
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Imagine a world where you can download an interactive 3-D video in a few seconds, a smart home anticipates your needs, and autonomous vehicles take you to your destination safely. This is the world of fifth-generation ( 5G ) broadband technology. It promises speeds of more

5G technology-evolution and revolution
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In this paper, an attempt has been made to review various existing generations of mobile wireless technology in terms of their portals, performance, advantages and disadvantages. The paper throws light on the evolution and development of various generations of mobile

An enhanced distributed evolved node-b architecture in 5G tele-communications network
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To meet the regularly expanding versatile information movement request, the portable administrators are conveying a heterogeneous system with numerous entrance innovations and an ever-increasing number of base stations to build the system scope and limit. Be that

5G mobile communications for 2020 and beyond-vision and key enabling technologies
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VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast 2013-201 Cisco The Mobile Economy, GSMA Internet of Things, Cisco Signals Ahead, ATT Drive Test Results and Report Preview The State of LTE, OpenSignal Seagate ST2000DM001

Comparative studies on 3G, 4G and 5G wireless technology
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The fifth generation wireless 5G development initiative is based upon 4G, which at present is struggling to meet its performance goals. The comparison between 3G and 4G wireless communication systems in relation to its architecture, speed, frequency band, switching

Visible light communications towards 5G
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5G networks have to offer extremely high capacity for novel streaming applications. One of the most promising approaches is to embed large numbers of cooperating small cells into the macro-cell coverage area. Alternatively, optical wireless based technologies can be

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/ 5G promoter polymorphism and coagulation factor VII Arg353→ Gln polymorphism in Korean patients with coronary artery
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a 50 kDa glycoprotein that belongs to the serine protease inhibitor superfamily. Although there is controversy surrounding the implication in coronary heart disease (CHD)( 2), reduced plasma fibrinolytic activity, due mainly to

MEC deployments in 4G and evolution towards 5G
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Multi-access Edge Computing is regarded as a key technology to bring application-oriented capabilities into the heart of a carriers network, in order to explore a wide range of new use cases, especially those with low latency requirements. When it comes to deploying MEC