immune system




Adhesion receptors of the immune system
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The adhesive interactions of cells with other cells and with the extracellular matrix are crucial to all developmental processes, but have a central role in the functions of the immune system throughout life. Three families of cell-surface molecules regulate the migration of

The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self
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Here, Charles. laneway argues that the requirement fi~ r tu,, signals to initiate the adaptive inmmne response ma), reflect the evolutionary history o/: host def noes. Early phases of host defince inzoh, e receptors and ligands that have controlled immune responses

Human immune system variation
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The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins The pressing need for a better experimental system for AIDS research has brought into sharp focus the shortcomings of available animal models and the practical and ethical limitations of studies of immune responses and viral pathogenesis in humans 2. Current

The skin immune system : progress in cutaneous biology
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The skin is an active, and in many ways unique, immunological microenvironment quite different from the other primary interfaces between the body and the environment (namely the mucosae). Here] an D. Bos and Martien L. Kapsenberg identify the components of the

Toward a layered immune system
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The broad outlines of developmental relationships among cells in the immune system appeared to be established some years ago with the introduction of the idea that pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells emerge early in fetal life and persist as a self-replenishing

Solving multiobjective optimization problems using an artificial immune system
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In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the clonal selection principle to solve multiobjective optimization problems (either constrained or unconstrained). The proposed approach uses Pareto dominance and feasibility to identify solutions that deserve to be The capability to cope with infectious agents and cancer cells resides not only in adaptive immune responses against specific antigens, mediated by T and B lymphocytes clonally distributed, but also in natural immune reactions. These innate defence mechanisms include

Is cancer dangerous to the immune system
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The hypothesis of immunologic surveillance of neoplasia is predicated on the theory that the immune system is capable of discriminating self from foreign antigens, and that tumor- specific antigens are regarded by the immune system as nonself. We propose here an

Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation
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Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was initially thought to be produced exclusively in the pineal gland. Subsequently its synthesis was demonstrated in other organs, for example, the retinas, and very high concentrations of melatonin are found at other sites, for example

Prominence of γ T cells in the ruminant immune system
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The lymphoid systems of sheep and cattle contain a large number of 8 T cells, in striking contrast to the lymphoid systems of humans and mice. In neonatal animals particularly, these cells comprise the predominant fraction of T cells in the blood. Here Wayne Hein and Sm Winston Churchill, in hospital with an 1 distributes its manifold forces in many infection during World War II, is said to I distinct venues (see table). have looked at his hospital chart and The well-known humoral (or antibodyasked his physician: What are these mediated)

Supergene families meet in the immune system
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The organization of the immune system and its mobilization in response to foreign antigens are dependent on a network of transient cell-cell interactions. Two receptorligand pairs involved in these adhesive interactions have been defined to date, while many remain to be

Fish immune system . A crossroads between innate and adaptive responses
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Fish, as the first vertebrate group appearing in evolution after adaptive radiation during the Devonic period, still represent the most successful and diverse group of vertebrates. This heterogeneous group of organisms occupy an apparent crossroads between the innate The current exuberance about interferon reflected in these pages referring to interferon as potentially the wonder drug of the 80s recalls the comment of Michael Faraday on being questioned sceptically by Gladstone on the uses of his research on electromagnetism, One

Purinergic regulation of the immune system
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Cellular stress or apoptosis triggers the release of ATP, ADP and other nucleotides into the extracellular space. Extracellular nucleotides function as autocrine and paracrine signalling molecules by activating cell-surface P2 purinergic receptors that elicit pro-inflammatory

Osteoimmunology and the effects of the immune system on bone
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In the pathogenesis of bone destruction associated with rheumatoid arthritis, the synovium is a site of active interplay between immune and bone cells. The interaction between T cells and osteoclasts is a critical issue in the field of osteoimmunology. Accumulating evidence

Multiple defects in the immune system of Lyn-deficient mice, culminating in autoimmune disease
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Mice homozygous for a disruption at the Lyn locus display abnormalities associated with the B lymphocyte lineage and in mast cell function. Despite reduced numbers of recirculating B lymphocytes, Lyn–mice are immunoglobulin M (IgM) hyperglobulinemic. Immune responses

Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are present in the intestine of most animals. The beneficial role played by these microorganisms in the humans and other animals, including the effect on the immune system has been extensively reported. They are present in many foods and are

Immune system approaches to intrusion detection a review
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The use of artificial immune systems in intrusion detection is an appealing concept for two reasons. First, the human immune system provides the human body with a high level of protection from invading pathogens, in a robust, self-organised and distributed manner