Precision medicine




Precision medicine is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to a subgroup of patients, instead of a one‐drug‐fits‐all model.

Doctors are using precision medicine to treat lung cancer, melanoma (skin cancer), colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer. It can also help with some rare childhood illnesses, cystic fibrosis, and HIV.

Interrogating open issues in cancer precision medicine with patient-derived xenografts
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Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as an important platform to elucidate new treatments and biomarkers in oncology. PDX models are used to address clinically relevant questions, including the contribution of tumour heterogeneity to therapeutic responsiveness

Drug development in the era of precision medicine
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For the past three decades, the use of genomics to inform drug discovery and development pipelines has generated both excitement and scepticism. Although earlier efforts successfully identified some new drug targets, the overall clinical efficacy of developed

Biomarker development in the precision medicine era: lung cancer as a case study
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Precision medicine relies on validated biomarkers with which to better classify patients by their probable disease risk, prognosis and/or response to treatment. Although affordableomics-based technology has enabled faster identification of putative biomarkers

Precision medicine for metastatic breast cancer limitations and solutions
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The development of precision medicine for the management of metastatic breast cancer is an appealing concept; however, major scientific and logistical challenges hinder its implementation in the clinic. The identification of driver mutational events remains the

Methionine metabolism in health and cancer: a nexus of diet and precision medicine
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Methionine uptake and metabolism is involved in a host of cellular functions including methylation reactions, redox maintenance, polyamine synthesis and coupling to folate metabolism, thus coordinating nucleotide and redox status. Each of these functions has

Tumor mutation burden: leading immunotherapy to the era of precision medicine
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Recently, immunotherapy became accepted broadly as an effective treatment modality for patients with cancer. However, the ability to select patients who will benefit from immunotherapy remains limited. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is promising as a

NCI-MATCH launch highlights new trial design in precision medicine era
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In July, oncologists will start enrolling patients in a clinical trial with 20 or more arms, each testing different agents against different molecular targets and each including patients with different cancers. In design, the trial itself couldnt be more different from the classic clinical

Functional precision cancer medicine moving beyond pure genomics
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The essential job of precision medicine is to match the right drugs to the right patients. In cancer, precision medicine has been nearly synonymous with genomics. However, sobering recent studies have generally shown that most patients with cancer who receive genomic

Computational oncology mathematical modelling of drug regimens for precision medicine
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Computational oncology is a generic term that encompasses any form of computer-based modelling relating to tumour biology and cancer therapy. Mathematical modelling can be used to probe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relationships of the available

Fairness in precision medicine
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To better understand how bias might impact precision medicine in the sphere of biomedical research, we conducted a qualitative study to identify the tensions and frameworks of diverse medical stakeholders. Our goal was to understand how precision medicine research

Induced pluripotent stem cells: at the heart of cardiovascular precision medicine
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The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has revitalized the efforts in the past decade to realize more fully the potential of human embryonic stem cells for scientific research. Adding to the possibility of generating an unlimited amount of any cell

Precision medicine for urothelial bladder cancer: update on tumour genomics and immunotherapy
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Effective management of advanced urothelial bladder cancer is challenging. New discoveries that improve our understanding of molecular bladder cancer subtypes have revealed numerous potentially targetable genomic alterations and demonstrated the efficacy

Precision Medicine
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On January 201 US President Obama announced at his 2015 State of the Union Address that he was launching a new precision medicine initiative . On January the Obama administration unveiled details about the Precision Medicine Initiative. Launched

The future of laboratory medicine in the era of precision medicine
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Medical science has undergone a substantial revolution in recent years, wherein the traditional approach to diagnosing and treating many human diseases has gradually evolved from a generalized conception of health and disease to an individualized approach

Cutting the Gordian helix regulating genomic testing in the era of precision medicine
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PERSPECTIVE n engl j med 372; 13 nejm. org march 2 2015 1186 variants reported to increase disease risk from 8% to 8.5% clinically meaningful especially if the study hasnt been reproduced Troublingly, some firms are already peddling genotype-based

Non-invasive metabolic imaging of brain tumours in the era of precision medicine
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The revolution in cancer genomics has uncovered a variety of clinically relevant mutations in primary brain tumours, creating an urgent need to develop non-invasive imaging biomarkers to assess and integrate this genetic information into the clinical management of patientsIn the field of cancer genomics, the broad availability of genetic information offered by next- generation sequencing technologies and rapid growth in biomedical publication has led to the advent of the big-data era. Integration of artificial intelligence (AI) approaches such as

Precision medicine based on epigenomics: the paradigm of carcinoma of unknown primary
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Epigenetic alterations are a common hallmark of human cancer. Single epigenetic markers are starting to be incorporated into clinical practice; however, the translational use of these biomarkers has not been validated at the omics level. The identification of the tissue of

Immunoscore for (colorectal) cancer precision medicine
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Since licensure of this investigational varicella zoster virus vaccine is awaited, it is not yet available for use. Although a live attenuated zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck and Co) has been used in several countries for about a decade, this vaccine is contraindicated in patients

Precision medicine by designer interference peptides: applications in oncology and molecular therapeutics
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In molecular cancer therapeutics only 10% of known cancer gene products are targetable with current pharmacological agents. Major oncogenic drivers, such as MYC and KRAS proteins are frequently highly overexpressed or mutated in multiple human malignancies

The precision medicine initiative cohort program Building a Research Foundation for 21st Century Medicine
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Im proud we have so many patients rights advocates with us here today. Theyre not going to be on the sidelines. Its not going to be an afterthought. Theyll help us design this initiative from the ground up, making sure that we harness new technologies andMolecular insights from genome and systems biology are influencing how cancer is diagnosed and treated. We critically evaluate big data challenges in precision medicine . The melanoma research community has identified distinct subtypes involving chronic sunHow can biophysical principles help precision medicine identify rare driver mutations A major tenet of pragmatic approaches to precision oncology and pharmacology is that driver mutations are very frequent. However, frequency is a statistical attribute, not a mechanistic

An overview of the NCI precision medicine trials NCI MATCH and MPACT
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Background The concept of oncogene addiction was first proposed by Weinstein (1), and has led to a whole new approach to cancer treatment. The discovery of imatinib, the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, revolutionized

Precision medicine from the renal cancer genome
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Genomics is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The advent of unbiased genome-wide association studies has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized genetic predisposing factors that impact anIn recent years, technological and analytical advances have led to an explosion in the discovery of genetic loci associated with type 2 diabetes. However, their ability to improve prediction of disease outcomes beyond standard clinical risk factors has been limited. On

The evidence framework for precision cancer medicine
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Precision cancer medicine (PCM) is a concept in which oncologists increasingly strive to tailor the use of targeted therapies in order to match the complexity of the cancer genome. This approach contradicts the historical framework used to support oncology practice thatPharmacogenomics is emerging as a popular type of study for human genetics in recent years. This is primarily due to the many success stories and high potential for translation to clinical practice. In this review, the strengths and limitations of pharmacogenomics are Bladder cancer (BC) is classified as non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) or muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). Because the recurrence and mortality rates of BC are high, suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses are neededBy 2050, intensive care medicine will evolve from reliance on treatment protocols, guidelines, consensus definitions, and organ support to regularly applying the principles of precision medicine . Precision medicine entails the customization of therapies based on

Disability inclusion in precision medicine research: a first national survey
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Purpose Including people with disabilities in precision medicine research (PMR) is key for increasing cohorts diversity, improving understanding of population health, and attaining social justice for the United States largest health disparities group. We conducted a national

NSG mice as hosts for oncological precision medicine
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Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have been rediscovered as meaningful research tool. By using severely immunodeficient mice, high-engraftment rates can be theoretically achieved, permitting clinical stratification strategies. Apart from engraftment efficacyHealthcare is undergoing a transformation, and it is imperative to leverage new technologies to generate new data and support the advent of precision medicine (PM). Recent scientific breakthroughs and technological advancements have improved our understanding of

Precision medicine for individual patients should use population group averages and larger, not smaller, groups
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Advocates of precision medicine propose that individual patients require evidence tailored to their singular, unique and personal profile. According to this way of thinking, population‐ based research, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and evidence‐based medicine (EBM) areSCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1. was first implicated in epileptic encephalopathy in 2012 . Since then, approximately 100 cases have been identified. SCN8A encephalopathy is characterized by onset of drugresistant seizures at a