ENGINEERING RESEARCH PAPERS

EEG-Electro encephalo graphic measurements




Fundamentals of EEG measurement
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Abstract: Electro encephalo graphic measurements are commonly used in medical and research areas. This review article presents an introduction into EEG measurement. Its purpose is to help with orientation in EEG field and with building basic knowledge for

Review of methods for solving the EEG inverse problem
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Abstract This paper reviews the class of instantaneous, 3D, discrete, linear solutions for the EEG inverse problem. Five different inverse methods are analyzed and compared: minimum norm, weighted minimum norm, Backus and Gilbert, weighted resolution optimization (

cortical dysplasia, microdysgenesis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and dysgenesis of the archicortex in epilepsy: clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features
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Summary Cerebral cortical dysgenesis (CD) is a heterogeneous disorder of cortical development and organization commonly associated with epilepsy, with a variety of subtypes. We reviewed the clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features in 100 adult patients

EEG-based communication: a pattern recognition approach
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Abstract:We present an overview of our research into brain computer interfacing (BCI). This comprises an offline study of the effect of motor imagery on EEG and an online study that uses pattern classifiers incorporating parameter uncertainty and temporal information

Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans
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The activation of sleep regulatory processes by an extension of wakefulness from 16 to 40 h results in a relative increase of low frequency EEG activity that is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas. verified on the day of admission to the laboratory with urinary toxicologic

Signal-space projection method for separating MEG or EEG into components
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1 Introduction CURRENTS INSIDE a conducting body can be estimated by measuring the magnetic and/or the electric field at multiple locations outside and then constructing a solution to the inverse problem, ie determining a current configuration that could have produced the measured

Bispectral EEG index during nitrous oxide administration
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Methods With approval of the Committee on Human Research at the University of California, we studied healthy volunteers (seven men and six women) aged 25+/-3 yr (mean+/-SD) and weighing 66+/-12 kg. The protocol was randomized but unblinded. Subjects with

Robust classification of EEG signal for brain-computer interface
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Abstract:We report the implementation of a text input applica-tion (speller) based on the P300 event related potential. We obtain high accuracies by using an SVM classifier and a novel feature. These techniques enable us to maintain fast performance without sacrificing

Classification of EEG signals from four subjects during five mental tasks
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Abstract Neural networks are trained to classify half-second segments of six-channel, EEG data into one of five classes corresponding to five cognitive tasks performed by four subjects. Two and three-layer feedforward neural networks are trained using 10-fold cross-

Effect of age on EEG arousals in normal sleep
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Summary: EEG arousals were quantified in 40 nocturnal polysomnographic recordings belonging to four age groups (teenagers: 10 to19 years; young adults: 20 to 39 years; middle-aged: 40 to 59 years; elderly:= 60 years). Ten subjects (five males and five

" Virtual keyboard" controlled by spontaneous EEG activity
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Abstract:A" virtual keyboard"(VK) is a letter spelling device operated for example by spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG), whereby the EEG is modulated by mental hand and leg motor imagery. We report on three able-bodied subjects, operating the VK. The

The EEG in coma
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Summary: The EEG allows insight into thalamocortical function in comatose patients when this is inaccessible clinically. A single EEG can help with broad diagnostic categorization whereas continuous or serial EEG provides monitoring for unstable and potentially

Melancholia and barbiturates: a controlled EEG, body and eye movement study of sleep
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Abstract Continuous nocturnal recording of EEG, eye movements and bed-movements was carried out on six patients, not previously receiving hypnotics, and six sex and age-matched controls. They were involved on five successive nights each the first night being ignored.

NREM sleep EEG frequency spectral correlates of sleep complaints in primary insomnia subtypes
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WHILE BOTH NONPHARMACOLOGIC AND MEDICATION THERAPIES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PERSISTENT PRIMARY INSOMNIA (PPI), these treatments are associated with significant limitations. 1-8 An important factor limiting

Influence of skull anisotropy for the forward and inverse problem in EEG: simulation studies using FEM on realistic head models
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Abstract: For the sake of realism in the description of conduction from primary neural currents to scalp potentials, we investigated the influence of skull anisotropy on the forward and inverse problems in brain functional imaging with EEG. At present, all methods

How can EEG/MEG and fMRI/PET data be combined
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In the last few years, the functional brain imaging community has witnessed numerous efforts (and perhaps even more discussion) directed at multimodality data fusion: combining high-quality localization information provided by the hemodynamic-based brain imaging

Nonlinear EEG Analysis in Epilepsy: Its Possible Use for Interictal Focus Localization, Seizure Anticipation, and
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Summary: Several recent studies emphasize the high value of nonlinear EEG analysis particularly for improved characterization of epileptic brain states. In this review the authors report their work to increase insight into the spatial and temporal dynamics of the

EEG correlates of the development of infant joint attention skills
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ABSTRACT: The development of the capacity for social attention coordination, or joint attention, is a major milestone of infancy. Data from a recent study of handicapped infants have raised the hypothesis that the tendency to initiate bids for joint attention may reflect

Compressed sensing framework for EEG compression
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ABSTRACT Many applications in signal processing require the efficient representation and processing of data. The traditional approach to efficient signal representation is compression. In recent years, there has been a new approach to compression at the

Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with EEG changes during isoflurane anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: critical rCBF
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Methods The protocol, requiring only clinical monitoring and anesthetic techniques already established in our practice, was approved by the Research Committee of the Department of Anesthesiology, and required no other institutional committee approval or informed

Effect of total sleep deprivation on reaction time and waking EEG activity in man
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Summary: Nine paid volunteers were sleep deprived over a period of 40 hours. Every 2 hours during total sleep deprivation (TSD) and after recovery sleep, oral temperature (OT), reaction time (RT) in a vigilance task and electroencephalogram (EEG) with eyes open

Sleep homeostasis and cortical synchronization: III. A high-density EEG study of sleep slow waves in humans
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SLOW WAVES ARE THE MOST OBVIOUS AND RECOG- NIZABLE FEATURE OF THE HUMAN SLEEP EEG. IN AD- DITION TO BEING INDICATIVE OF SLEEP DEPTH,5 SLOW waves are intimately related to sleep regulation: it is well known that SWA (EEG power between 0.5 and 4.0

A CMOS IC for portable EEG acquisition systems
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Abstract:We present a monolithic low-power, low-noise analog front-end electroencephalogram acquisition system. It draws only 500 A from a standard 9-V battery, making it suitable for use in portable systems. Although fabricated in a standard CMOS

Strange attractors that govern mammalian brain dynamics shown by trajectories of electroencephalographic(EEG) potential
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Fig. 1 (a)(upper left) shows a 2-D view on a video screen of a 3-D display of a 4-second epoch of EEG from the olfactory system of the brain of a rat, awake but resting motionless. The trajectory of a point moving through this space in time traces the subspace that is

EEG-based emotion recognition
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ABSTRACT Making the computer more empathic to the user is one of the aspects of affective computing. With EEG-based emotion recognition, the computer can actually take a look inside the user's head to observe their mental state. This paper describes a research

Prosthetic control by an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI)
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Abstract. The real-time analyses of oscillatory EEG components during right and left hand movement imagination allows the control of an electric device. Such a system, called brain- computer interface (BCI), can be used eg by patients who are totally paralyzed (eg

HMMs and coupled HMMs for multi-channel EEG classification
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Abstract:A variety of Coupled HMMs (CHMMs) have recently been proposed as extensions of HMM to better characterize multiple interdependent sequences. This paper introduces a novel distance coupled HMM. It then compares the performance of several HMM and

Cortico-cortical communication and superior performance in skilled marksmen: An EEG coherence analysis
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Electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence was assessed during a 4-s aiming period prior to trigger pull in expert marksmen (n= 10) and skilled shooters (n= 9) over the course of a regulation round of small-bore rifle shooting. Although both groups were highly

Scoring transitions to REM sleep in rats based on the EEG phenomena of pre-REM sleep: an improved analysis of sleep structure
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Summary: Algorithms for scoring sleep/waking states and transitions to REM sleep (NRTs) in rats are presented and validated. Both algorithms are based on electroencephalographic (EEG) power in delta (0.5-4.0 Hz), theta (6-9 Hz) and sigma (10-14 Hz) frequency bands,

State and trait of frontal EEG asymmetry in emotion
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State and Trait Frontal EEG Asymmetry in Emotion p. 4 frontal activation with trait and state anger (Harmon-Jones, 2000a; Harmon-Jones Allen, 1998), as well as with general behavioral activation tendencies independent of valence (Harmon-Jones Allen, 1997;

Complexity analysis of spontaneous EEG
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Abstract. The aim of the present paper is the assessment of the overall complexity of spontaneous and non-paroxysmal EEG signals obtained from three groups of human subjects, eg, healthy, seizure and mania. Linear complexity measure suitable for multi-

Automatic artifact rejection for EEG data using high-order statistics and independent component analysis
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ABSTRACT While it is now generally accepted that independent component analysis is a good tool for isolating both artifacts and cognitive related activations in EEG data, there is still little consensus about criteria for automatic rejection of artifactual components and

A novel dry active electrode for EEG recording.
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Abstract:The design and testing of a dry active electrode for elec-troencephalographic recording is described. A comparative study between the EEG signals recorded in human volunteers simultaneously with the classical Ag-AgCl and dry active electrodes was

Seizure detection in EEG signals: A comparison of different approaches
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Abstract:In this paper, the performance of traditional variance-based method for detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals are compared with various methods based on nonlinear time series analysis, entropies, logistic regression, discrete wavelet transform and time

Sleep EEG power spectra, insomnia, and chronic use of benzodiazepines
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INSOMNIA IS A PREVALENT HEALTH COMPLAINT, AND THE INCIDENCE INCREASES WITH AGING. Normal age-related changes in sleep patterns, combined with the increased prevalence of health problems and medication use, place older adults at greater risk for

NREM arousal parasomnias and their distinction from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a video EEG analysis
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Design. Systematic semiologial evaluation of parasomnias and NFLE seizures recorded on video-EEG monitoring. Patients. 120 events (57 parasomnias, 63 NFLE seizures) from 44 subjects (14 males). interventions. The presence or absence of 68 elemental clinical

Support Vector EEG Classification in the Fourier and Time-Frequency Correlation
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Abstract In this paper we use support vector learning machines (SVM) for classifying EEG signals corresponding to imagined motor movements. The parameters of an SVM Kernel are optimized for minimizing a theoretical error bound. Fourier features and correlative time-

EEG, consciousness, and sleep
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Materials and Methods Twenty-one normal, adult male subjects were selected on the basis of I@(average or above) and a monopolar, occipital EEG showing a continuous alpha rhythm when they were awake and resting nith their eyes closed (7). Subjects were

Methods to improve the spatial resolution of EEG
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Abstract Theoretical models and experimental EEG data were examined to quantify the spatial resolution of scalp surface recordings of EEG. The results suggest that scalp EEG electrodes are mostly sensitive to activity correlated over large areas of the superficial

Time course of reaction time and EEG while performing a vigilance task during total sleep deprivation
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Summary: Nine young adult male (23 30 years old) paid volunteers were subjected to total sleep deprivation (TSD), after two consecutive nights in the laboratory, for 40 hours (from 0800 hours on the rst day to 2400 hours on the following day). Oral temperature (OT),

A decade of EEG theta/beta ratio research in ADHD: a meta-analysis
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Abstract Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/

EEG sleep spindle ontogenesis
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Spindles are a well-known attribute of the sleep EEG in the human and are used as one of the important criteria for classifying sleep stages in dream and sleep research2. It is significant for studies of human growth and development that sleep spindles are not

Age and gender affect different characteristics of slow waves in the sleepEEG
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Summary: Low-frequency EEG was analyzed quantitatively during 2 nights in 40 females and 34 males aged 26 to 101 years. Analyses were based on Rechtschaffen and Kales NREM sleep stages, on absolute low-frequency amplitude (ie power in the range of 0.2-

A comparison of the electrophysiologic characteristics of EEG burst-suppression as produced by isoflurane, thiopental, etomidate, and propofol.
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Summary: Electroencephalogram (EEG) burst-suppression can be produced with several anesthetic agents. Discussions of burst-suppression suggest that it has been viewed by many as a relatively uniform physiologic state independent of the agent used to produce it.

The effect of donepezil on sleep and REM sleep EEG in patients with Alzheimer disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled study
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Results: REM sleep increased significantly after 3 and 6 months of donepezil treatment compared with baseline and placebo (p<. 01). Overall theta (p=. 04), frontal theta (p<. 01) and frontal delta (p=. 03) absolute power during REM sleep decreased after 6 months of

Removal of Ocular Artifacts in the EEG through Wavelet Transform without using an EOG Reference Channel
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Abstract This paper presents a statistical method for removing ocular artifacts in the electroencephalogram (EEG) records. Artifacts in EEG signals are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). The

Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study
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Conclusions: In line with recent EEG data, lucid dreaming was associated with a reactivation of areas which are normally deactivated during REM sleep. This pattern of activity can explain the recovery of reflective cognitive capabilities that are the hallmark of lucid

Quantitative EEG and auditory event-related potentials in the evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Effects of methylphenidate and implications for
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Neurophysiological correlates of Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity (ADD/HD) and effects of methylphenidate are explored using electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory eventrelated potentials (ERPs). In the first of four studies, a database

Quantitative analysis of EEG signals: time-frequency methods and chaos theory
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Zusammenfassung Seitdem 1929 die ersten EEGs von Menschen abgeleitet wurden, hat sich das EEG zu einem der wichtigsten diagnostischen Hilfsmittel in der klinischen Neurophysiologie entwickelt. Bis jetzt beruht die EEG-Analyse jedoch weitgehend auf der

Dynamic changes in EEG spectra during obstructive apnea in children
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Summary. Children are less likely to demonstrate EEG arousal during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than adults. We hypothesized that changes in spectral EEG characteristics occur during REM-associated OSA in the absence of arousal. Eight snoring children

Poser: Parametric orchestral sonification of eeg in real-time for the self-regulation of brain states
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Abstract:We introduce a device for the parametric sonification of electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Implemented in the Thought-Translation-Device TTD (a brain-computer interface designed for the communication with completely paralyzed patients), the device

Correlates of respiratory cycle-related EEG changes in children with sleep-disordered breathing
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OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IS BELIEVED TO CAUSE SLEEPI- NESS IN 3% OF ADULTS,1 BUT THE MECHANISM BY WHICH SLEEPINESS AND OTHER COGNITIVE CHANGES ARE PRO- DUCED IS NOT COMPLETELY UNDERSTOOD.2 Although hypox- emia may

Surgical stimulation shifts EEG concentration–response relationship of desflurane
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ALL general anesthetics are known to change electroencephalographic patterns from low- voltage fast waves in conscious humans to high-voltage slow waves in the anesthetized state. Processed univariate electroencephalographic parameters, 1 such as spectral edge

EEG feature extraction for classifying emotions using FCM and FKM
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Abstract:The Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the useful biosignals detect the human emotions. This paper discusses on a research conducted to determine the changes in the electrical activity of the human brain related to distinct emotions. We designed a

Changes in the waking EEG as a consequence of sleep and sleep deprivation
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Summary: Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was monopolarly recorded during resting wakefulness in 10 volunteers under the following conditions: at night before going to sleep, at night before total sleep deprivation, in the morning after waking, in the morning after

HMM and IOHMM modeling of EEG rhythms for asynchronous BCI systems
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Abstract. We compare the use of two Markovian models, HMMs and IOHMMs, to discriminate between three mental tasks for brain computer interface systems using an asynchronous protocol. We show that IOHMMs outperform HMMs but that, probably due to the lack of any

System Analysis of Changes in EEG Power and Coherence during Different Phases of Chronic Inescapable Stress in Rats
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Methods. 8 male rats (Wistar line) were operated under hexobarbital narcosis (40 mgikg ip). Bipolar manganin electrodes were stereotaxically implanted in the next structures n. paraventricularis (Pin Fig. l), n. arcuatus (A), hippocampus (H) as well as in the motor

A Preliminary Study on Aromatheraphy as a Stress Buster Using EEG SignalAnalysis
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Abstract---Stress is an inevitable and unavoidable component of life due to increasing complexities and competitiveness in living standards. It is obvious that reduction in stress levels would cause beneficial effects. Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that