ENGINEERING RESEARCH PAPERS

LTE-Long-Term Evolution IEEE PAPER 2016




Hybrid channel gain and access cell association for load balancing in downlink LTE-Advanced HetNets
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Abstract:The LTE-Advanced HetNets deployment is meant to address the increasing demand for quality of service (QoS), high data rates, and coverage extension to mobile users especially in hotspot areas. One of the main challenges of the deployment, where

IP Design and Implementation of a LTE-A Cell Blind Detect Scheme
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Abstract The current LTE-Advanced system architecture tends to flatten and the data transfer rate of mobile communication system continues to increase, which needs to complete cell blind detect more accurate and quick, and indicates that the design of the LTE-A system

Device-to-device (D2D) meets LTE-Unlicensed
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Abstract:In this article, we look into how the LTE network can efficiently evolve to cater for new data services by utilizing direct communications between mobile devices and extending the direct transmissions to the unlicensed bands, ie, device-to-device (D2D)

Model estimates of inelastic calcium-hydrogen collision data for non-LTE stellar atmospheres modeling
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Aims. Inelastic processes in low-energy Ca+ H and Ca++ H- collisions are treated for the states from the ground state up to the ionic state with the aim to provide rate coefficients needed for non-LTE modeling of Ca in cool stellar atmospheres. Methods. The electronic

Peer-to-Peer Traffic over LTE: Simulate Performance during Cell Cross-over
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Abstract:A model was built using NS-3 to study peer-to-peer traffic over LTE. The model was used to investigate network performance for a VoIP call between two mobile users as one of the users moved between cellular regions. The scenario was such that one user (

What is LTE actually used for An answer through multi-operator, crowd-sourced measurement
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Abstract:LTE networks are commonplace nowadays; however, comparatively little is known about where (and why) they are deployed, and the demand they serve. We shed some light on these issues through large-scale, crowd-sourced measurement. Our data,

target using lte passive bistatic radar
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Abstract:target are a function of dependent bistatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) and radar design parameters which in this experimental study used LTE signal as a source for passive bistatic radar (PBR).target

Analysis of Data Interruption in an LTE Highway Scenario with Dual Connectivity
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Term Evolution with dual connectivity are able to support the latency and reliability requirements for the upcoming vehicular use-cases and time-critical applications. Data interruption times during handovers and cell management operations are evaluated by

PSUN: An OFDM-Pulsed Radar Coexistence Technique with Application to 3.5 GHz LTE
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Abstract:This paper proposes Precoded SUbcarrier Nulling (PSUN), an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission strategy for a wireless communications system that needs to coexist with federal military radars generating pulsed signals in the

On the orchestration of robust virtual LTE-U networks from hybrid half/full-duplex Wi-Fi APs
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Abstract:Two promising solutions have been recently proposed to address the massive growth in mobile traffic and wireless devices: LTE-U and in-band full-duplex (FD) wireless. LTE-U extends the benefits of LTE-A to the unlicensed 5 GHz band, used mainly by Wi-Fi

Investigation on Handover in WiMAX and Performance Comparison over WiMAX and LTE
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Abstract WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) and LTE (Long-Term Evaluation) utilize advanced technologies, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO). They are both based on

M-QAM BER and SER Analysis of Multipath Fading Channels in Long Term Evolutions (LTE)
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Abstract Cellular Mobile Communications have become an essential part of the world telecommunications. However, the systems suffer from multipath propagation effects. In this paper, we calculate the probability of symbol error rate and bit error rate of M-ary

A Compact Quad-band Monopole Antenna for IoT Application in WSNs/WLAN/LTE Bands
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Abstract. In this paper, a compact quad-band planar monopole antenna for IoT application is designed, fabricated and measured. Four desired resonant frequencies are achieved by an L-shape radiation element and a paper clip meander strip. The proposed antenna

Mobility Performance in Slow-and High-Speed LTE Real Scenarios
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Abstract:Mobility performance and handover data interrup-tion times in real scenarios are studied by means of field measurements in an operational LTE network. Both slow-and high- speed scenarios are analyzed by collecting results from two different areas: Aalborg

User-to-User Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for LTECellular System
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Abstract Long Term Evolution LTE is the first technology that provides exclusively packet- switched data and modifies the security architecture of the 2G and 3G systems. The LTE security architecture offers confidentiality, access control, a kind of obscurity and mutual

Advanced Data Mining Appraoch For Handoff Procedure's in Lte Technology
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Abstract With expansion in the innovation, the requests of the individuals are expanding as individuals are more intrigued by the web offices with higher information rate. Despite the fact that 3G advances convey essentially higher bit rates than 2G innovations," LTE"(3GPP

2.6 GHz GaN-HEMT Power Amplifier MMIC for LTE Small-Cell Applications
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Abstract:This paper presents a two-stage power amplifier MMIC using a 0.4 µm GaN- HEMT process. The two-stage structure provides high gain and compact circuit size using an integrated inter-stage matching network. The size and loss of the inter-stage matching

The Synchronization Design and Implementation of LTE-Advanced Real-Time Test Platform Based on Software Defined Radio
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Abstract To meet the needs of future mobile communication, an essential approach is adopting new architectures of the mobile communication network and advanced technologies of wireless transmission. We choose GNU Radio and Universal Software

Analyzing of power control technique in LTE-advanced Femtocell network
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Abstract: Nowadays, users demand for higher data rates and good quality of services. Thus, to supply better coverage, more capacity, higher throughput, and reduced latency with less complexity, Long Term Evolution–Advanced (LTE-A) has been created by 3rd Generation

LTE Architecture Overview and Security Analysis
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Page 1. Draft NISTIR 8071 LTE Architecture Overview and Security Analysis Jeffrey Cichonski Joshua M Franklin Michael Bartock Page 2. Draft NISTIR 8071 LTE Architecture Overview and Security Analysis Jeffrey Cichonski

From LTE-Advanced to 5G: Mobile Access System in Progress
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There is a surge in the amount of mobile data traffic due to the growing popularity of smartphones and tablets and the increasing use of diversified applications that use pictures and movie files. The amount of mobile data traffic is expected to continue increasing with

CU-LTE: Spectrally-Efficient and Fair Coexistence Between LTE and Wi-Fi in Unlicensed Bands
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Abstract:To cope with the increasing scarcity of spectrum resources, researchers have been working to extend LTE/LTEA cellular systems to unlicensed bands, leading to so- called unlicensed LTE (U-LTE). However, this extension is by no means straightforward, or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical

Performance Evaluation of Mobile Users Served by Fixed and Mobile Femtocells in LTE Networks
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the concept of Mobile Femtocell with considering the feasibility of deploying Mobile Femtocells in public transportation vehicles such as trains, buses or private cars that form its own cell inside vehicles to serve vehicular and mobile

A Real-Time Software Defined Radio Platform for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks
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Abstract:This paper presents the design and implementation of a LTE-Advanced system platform based on software defined radio. The platform has flexible implementation; commom construction; strong ability of modular, expansibility and portability; easy to

Orthogonal Hybrid LTE MIMO Antennas for the Smartphone
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Abstract Two orthogonal hybrid antennas for the LTE MIMO operation in the smartphone are presented. The two antennas (one open-slot antenna and one inverted-F antenna) are disposed orthogonally to each other. The open-slot antenna comprises two open slots of

Clustering Based Packet Scheduling Adaptive to the Network Load in LTE-Advanced Networks
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Abstract This paper investigates authors' previously proposed novel clustering based packet scheduling algorithm for the downlink transmission of LTE-Advanced networks, under variable network conditions. Numerous simulations are run to investigate the performance

Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference in LTE-Advanced: Heterogeneous Networks
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Abstract: Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has continuously been working on improving cellular experience for users. The latest developments in the cellular standards of the Fourth Generation has been towards providing better throughput, higher data rate,

Public safety users' priority-based energy and time-efficient device discovery scheme with contention resolution for ProSe in 3GPP LTE-A systems
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Abstract: A device-to-device discovery scheme is a key enabler for proximity-based services in 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) long-term evolution advanced (LTE-A) systems for public safety and general LTE scenarios. The deployment of device-to-device (D2D)

A Comparative Study of Dual Connectivity in Heterogeneous LTE-Advanced Networks
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Abstract To accommodate fast growing mobile traffic, many network operators make efforts to increase the number of small cells especially in urban hot spot areas. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), a global standard organization for wireless

A flexible m2m radio resource sharing scheme in lte networks within an m2m/h2h coexistence scenario
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Abstract:The introduction of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications to long term evolution and advanced (LTE-A) cellular networks can significantly degrade the performance of existing human-to-human (H2H) communications. In this paper, we

Implementation of faster than Nyquist signaling on LTE-uplink like system models
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Abstract As the data rate requirements are increasing rapidly, so is the need to design better bandwidth efficient digital communication systems. Higher bandwidth efficiency can be achieved by different methods, but in this thesis we procured it by increasing the data

Beam-Forming-Aware Link-Adaptation for Differential Beam-Forming in an LTEFDD System
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Abstract The ability for base stations to be able to beam-form their signals, directing the signal energy to specific users, is a topic of research that has been heavily studied during the last decades. The beam-forming technique aims to increase the signal-to-interference-

Some Thoughts on the Role of non-LTE Physics in ICF
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This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or

Handoffs in Femtocell and Efficient Mobility Management in LTE Femtocell Network
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Abstract: Femtocells, as known as''Home E-UTRAN Node B''(HeNB) is the tremendous network technology in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) network which is a small base station deployed in homes, buildings, offices or other locations that is designed to improve indoor

LTE security and protocol exploits
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Things an attacker can learn from MIB and SIB messages–Optimal tx power for a rogue base station (no need to set up your USRP to its max tx power)–High priority frequencies to force priority cell reselection–Mobile operator who owns that tower–Tracking Area of the

Impact Study of a Mobile Botnet over LTE Networks
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Abstract This paper studies the impact of a mobile botnet on a Long Term Evolution (LTE) network by implementing a mobile botnet architecture that initiates a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. To understand the behavior of the mobile botnet, a correlation

Improving of Energy Efficiency in LTE based MIMO-OFDM systems with Multi user rate
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Abstract-In today's world energy efficiency in wireless communication becomes an important topic and also to make eco-friendly environment we need green communication in Telecommunication industry. Moreover, the data traffic is also more among users. So we

Interference Reduction Techniques for Heterogeneous Network in 4G LTE-A System
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Abstract:-In this paper, we discuss about 4G LTE-A (Long Term Evolution-Advanced) which is used for Heterogeneous Network for providing higher data rates and greater spectral efficiency. Some of the methods to improve the spectral efficiency are to be discussed in

A Planar Coupled-Fed Unidirection Dual-Band Antennna for GSM, UMTS, WLAN,LTE and Wi-MAX Applications
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Abstract–A novel planar unidirectional printed Dual-Band antenna is presented and studied in this paper. The first band covers global system for mobile communication (GSM), universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS), wirless local area network (WLAN)

From 3GPP LTE to 5G: An Evolution
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Abstract:All-IP network architecture is fast becoming a norm in mobile telecommunications. The International Telecommunications Union–Radio communication sector (ITU-R) recognizes a technology as 4G after haven met the International Mobile

Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U
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Abstract:Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U) is recently drawing significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically,

RESOURCE ALLOCATION USING COORDINATED MULTIPOINT IN LTE-ADVANCED
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Abstract The research shows that Coordinated Multi Point (CoMP) transmission can improve significant gains in terms of the overall capacity of cell and the throughput of cell-edge user. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the throughput of cell and, the cell-edge

Addressing the Emerging challenges in Modeling and Simulating the Performance of LTE Networks
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Abstract There is several challenges in LTE system capacity and performance evaluation. Among other things, traffic modeling and distributions, the quality of services (QoS) requirements of such traffic, the instantaneous propagation conditions, and the number of

AUTOMATION IMPROVEMENTS TO LTE ENODEB USER PLANE SOFTWARE INTEGRATION TESTING
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ABSTRACT The LTE eNodeB base station software is composed of various interconnected components, which handle different functionalities. Integration testing is used to test the interfaces and interactions between the components when they are combined together. In

Impact of the LTE Scheduler on achieving Good QoE for DASH Video Streaming
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Abstract:Dynamic adaptive video over HTTP (DASH) is fast becoming the protocol of choice for content providers for their online video streaming delivery. Concurrently, dependence on cellular Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks is growing to serve user

An Uplink LTE-A Channel Estimation Method Based On Connexionist System
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Abstract---A new channel estimation technique for an LTEA uplink system based on the alternate pilot is introduced by this paper. The channel estimation based on the pilot block type and comb type pilot is studied by different algorithms using two methods:

On uplink power control for small cell in LTE
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ABSTRACT In Long term evolution (LTE) cellular network, the uplink power control mechanism consists of two part, namely an open loop power control and a closed loop power control part. In this work, open loop power control for LTE uplink is considered by

Scheduler Throughput of downlink LTE-MAC
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Abstract: Long Term Evaluation (LTE), which is called, has 4th Generation in mobile communication. As with the survey, we know that the speed of LTE system is very good enough in uplink and downlink of scheduler. In LTE network uses FDMA for uplink and

A Novel Self-Organizing Network Algorithm for Modeled HetNets LTE-Advanced Through Hybrid Fractional Frequency Reuse (HFFR) Scheme
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ABSTRACT In this paper, the essential issues of HetNets in LTE-A platform have been covered and current solutions are implied by utilizing self-organizing network (SON) management methods, which allows the cooperative cellular systems to experience

Enabling Transparent Caching in LTE Mobile Backhaul Networks with SDN
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Abstract:Today's mobile network architecture lacks the flexibility to efficiently handle the fast increasing amount of data traffic. SDN could potentially provide the required flexibility in future mobile architectures, however its introduction into the existing architecture is

Self-Organizing Schedulers in LTE System for Optimized Pixel Throughput Using Neural Network.
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Evolution (LTE) is to minimize the costs and effort of network planning, optimization and configuration to the lowest possible level, while keeping a very good acceptable performance level which can be achieved by using self-organizing networks (SON)

Channel Equalization for MIMO LTE System in Multi-path Fading Channels
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ABSTRACT The Long Term Evolution (3GPP-LTE) combines the Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna and the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) techniques to accomplish high speed data transmission. Comparisons of zero forcing (ZF),

Security Analysis of Handover Key Management in 4G LTE/SAE Networks
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Abstract: The goal of 3GPP Long Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution (LTE/SAE) is to move mobile cellular wireless technology into its fourth generation. One of the unique challenges of fourth-generation technology is how to close a security gap through which a

Review on Role of Turbo Encoder and Decoder in LTE Network
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Abstract:In order to have a reliable communication, channel coding is defined to be effective solution. The turbo code is a powerful coding technique among various correction codes therefore it is widely accepted in wireless communication networks. Turbo encoder

Massive M2M Communication in LTE Networks
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Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is one of the latest research areas and aims to enable machines to communicate with each other without human intervention. However, current cellular mobile networks, such as LTE, are designed and optimized for traffic

A Robust Crypto-Key Management (RoCKeM) Model for Highly Secure 4G/LTENetworks
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Abstract: The fourth generation cellular networks are raising trend in the present world. The fourth generation (4G) cellular network is the result of the evolution termed as the long term evolution (LTE), hence also known as the 4G/LTE networks. The 4G/LTE networks offer

LTE MOBILITY SECURITY AND VIRTUALIZATION (PART I)
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Page 1. LTE MOBILITY SECURITY AND VIRTUALIZATION (PART I) Roger Piqueras Jover rpiquerasjov@bloomberg.net Page 2. ABOUT ME 1 We will have a short break before Part II Page 6. INTRODUCTION TO LTE 5 Page 7. THE LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) 6

Modeling, Design, Fabrication and Demonstration of RF Front-End 3D IPAC Module with Ultra-thin Glass Substrates for LTE Applications
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This paper demonstrates, for the first time, an integrated radio frequency (RF) front-end module (FEM) with precision matching circuits in ultra-miniaturized glass substrates for LTE applications. Through full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations, electrical performance

Share in the Commons: Coexistence between LTE Unlicensed and Wi-Fi
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Abstract LTE Unlicensed extends long-term evolution (LTE) to unlicensed spectrum by aggregating unlicensed carriers with licensed ones with carrier aggregation or solely operating in unlicensed bands. It can create a unified network, increase network capacity,

Intercell Interference and Cross Tier Interference Mitigation in LTE based Femtocell Network using'CASFR'Scheme
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Abstract: One of the effective techniques of improving the coverage and enhancing the capacity and data rate in cellular wireless networks is to reduce the cell size and transmission distances. Long Term Evolution (LTE) has developed small cellular base

ASemi BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION METHOD BASED ON HYBRID NEURAL NETWORKS FOR UPLINK LTE-A
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ABSTRACT The paper describes how to improve channel estimation in Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) system, using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks (HANN). The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards for uplink

LTE-A Downlink Resource Management for Green Communication
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Abstract:LTE-A adopts carrier aggregation to support highspeed transmission by integrating component carriers to send data to a single user. While many resource scheduling schemes seek to maximize network throughput, the paper aims at providing

Macro-user protected interference-aware transmit power control for LTE-A heterogeneous networks
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Abstract In Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) heterogeneous networks (HetNets), small cells are deployed within the coverage area of macrocells having 1: 1 frequency reuse. The coexistence of small cells and a macrocell in the same frequency band poses

A Multi-Criteria Approach for Multicast Resource Allocation over LTE and Beyond Cellular Systems
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Abstract:The fast growing of multimedia applications and enhanced device (ie, in capacity and computing) leads the network infrastructure to manage a number of users with different channel qualities, application requirements, and service constraints. In such a scenario, is

Usability of LTE for Transmitting Radar Data from DLR's Research Aircraft DO 228-212
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Abstract: In the paper the usability of long term evolution (LTE) data transmission from an aircraft to the ground is investigated. Theoretical analyses and experimental measurements have been carried out by using a commercial low-cost LTE modem and the existing LTE

Dual Band Planar Inverted F Antenna with Metamaterial Superstate forLTE/WLAN/WiMAX Mobile Communication
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Antenna (PIFA) that consists of Metamaterial superstate. The superstate is made up of modified square split-ring resonator (SSRR) with rings on both sides of the dielectric substrate. In order to obtain wide bandwidth with dual-band operation, a Metamaterial unit

Evidence of a significant rotational non-LTE effect in the CO2 4.3 µm PFS-MEX limb spectra
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Abstract. Since January 2004, the planetary Fourier spectrometer (PFS) on board the Mars Express satellite has been recording near infrared limb spectra of high quality up to˜ 150 km, with potential information on density and thermal structure of the upper atmosphere.

Performance Comparison of Cyclic Prefix OFDM and Unique Word OFDM in theLTE Downlink
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Abstract:The Long Term Evolution (LTE) downlink frame structure currently uses Cyclic Prefix Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CP-OFDM) where the bandwidth occupied by the prefix is not utilized. Optimization of this prefix could result in increased

Performance Analysis of MIMO over MIMO-LTE for QPSK Considering Rayleigh Fading Distribution
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Generation Partnership Project) wireless standards which uses the standard OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) modulation, MU-MIMO (Multiuser Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology and different multipath fading models. LTE allows the

Coopetition between LTE Unlicensed and Wi-Fi: A Reverse Auction with Allocative Externalities
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Abstract:Motivated by the recent efforts in extending LTE to the unlicensed spectrum, we propose a novel spectrum sharing framework for the coopetition (ie, cooperation and competition) between LTE and Wi-Fi in the unlicensed band. Basically, the LTE network

An LTE-Based Wideband Distributed Spectrum Sharing Architecture
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Abstract:This paper describes a radio architecture for distributed spectrum sharing among secondary users (SUs) in a localized area and a wide band of frequencies. Based upon an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) physical layer, the architecture allows

Tradeoffs in PRACH bandwidth partitioning for VM2M overlay network in LTE
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Abstract:In this paper, we evaluate the impact of physical layer on the performance of the Control Channel (CCH) in a Vehicular Access Network (VANET). CCH is implemented as an overlay network over LTE physical random access channel (PRACH). Physical layer of the

Transmission Scheme for D2D Multicast Communication in LTE-Advanced Networks
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Abstract:We consider D2D multicast communication which reuses cellular uplink frequency resources in LTE-Advanced networks. In this case, the cellular uplink signal will interfere to the D2D link communication. The data transmission rate of D2D multicast communication

A Review on Adaptive Modulation and Turbo Coding in LTE
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Abstract–The LTE standard uses three different modulation schemes to adapt to various channel conditions in order to improve achievable data rates. These modulation schemes are the QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. This paper presents an overview of a LTE digital

D-LiTE: A platform for evaluating DASH performance over a simulated LTEnetwork
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Abstract:In this demonstration we present a platform that encompasses all of the components required to realistically evaluate the performance of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) over a real-time NS-3 simulated network. Our platform

AD HOC UAV LTE NETWORKS FOR CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS
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ABSTRACT Small-scale unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used for military and public-safety operations. Today's military and disaster-response personnel have become accustomed to smartphones connected to commercial communications networks in their

Relay Enhanced LTE-Advanced Networks
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Abstract: 3rd Generation Project Partnership (3GPP) proposed the 4th generation mobile telecommunications (4G) technology [1], one such technology being Long-Term Evolution- Advanced (LTE-Advanced) to the ITU-T, which aims to improve the already existing Long

Single Die Broadband CMOS Power Amplifier and Tracker with 37% Overall Efficiency for TDD/FDD LTE Applications
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Abstract:This paper presents a 2.3 GHz-2.7 GHz broadband CMOS FDD/TDD LTE Band 7, 38, 40 and 41 power amplifier (PA) fully integrated with a fast envelope tracker (ET) on a single 0.18 µm CMOS die. The PA and the tracker achieve a 37% overall efficiency for

CBRS Spectrum Sharing Between LTE-U and WiFi: A Multi-Armed Bandit Approach
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Abstract:The surge of mobile devices such as smart-phone and tablets requires additional capacity. To achieve ubiquitous and high data rate Internet connectivity, effective spectrum sharing and utilization of the wireless spectrum carries critical importance. In this paper,

Stochastic Analysis of Two-Tier HetNets Employing LTE and WiFi
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Abstract:In order to increase the capacity of mobile networks, operators are investigating the use of unlicensed spectrum in addition to their licensed spectrum. Already today it is possible to integrate WiFi networks into the core networks and perform offloading of traffic

LTE/Wi-Fi Co-existence under Scrutiny: An Empirical Study
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ABSTRACT Mobile operators are seeking to increase network capacity by extending Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operation into unlicensed frequency bands. While these efforts may respond to the projected exponential growth in mobile data traffic, significant

Design of BiFET stacked folded differential Power Amplifier for TD-LTE
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Abstract This paper presents a RF power amplifier (PA) designed for the TD-LTE standard. The power amplifier is based on the Stacked Folded Differential structure. The first stage is a differential common-source amplifier, which is used to amplify the signal from the input

SOMEINVESTIGATIONSON LTE WIMAXTECHNOLOGIES THEIRFUT UREPR OS PECTIVE
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IEEE standards and LTE standardized by 3GPP, are two competing technologies, nevertheless, are very technically similar. This competition started with the advent of their pre-4G ver-sions (802.16 e for Mobile WiMAX and 3GPP release 8 for LTE) and continued

Evolution of Adaptive Antennas for LTE Systems
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Abstract:Long term evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group. There is an increasing interest in technologies that will be define the next generation (5G)

A Cross-Layer QoS Solution for Resource Optimization in LTE Networks
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Abstract:Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks are expected to provide enhanced quality of service (QoS) guaranteed services and a high capacity. In this paper, we propose a novel QoS guaranteed cross-layer scheduling algorithm for LTE system. In fact the LTE

A survey on fuzzy logic applications in wireless and mobile communication forLTE networks
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Abstract:This paper conducts a comprehensive survey on fuzzy logic applications in wireless and mobile communication area in general and of growing LTE communication networks in particular. The survey aims to highlight the principles of fuzzy logic

A Wideband Omnidirectional Horizontally Polarized Antenna for LTE Application
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Abstract The proposed antenna is designed for increasing end user demands for wider service due to the rapid growth and variety of IT (information technology) industry, the service with the data rate of 30 Mbps cannot accommodate the future mobile multimedia

Implementing Secure Network-Assisted D2D Framework in Live 3GPP LTEDeployment
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Abstract:Device-to-Device (D2D) communication constitutes an emerging network paradigm that promises to unlock decisive capacity gains without the need for expensive cellular resources. However, while deployment of this promising enabler technology in 5G

Aggregating LTE and Wi-Fi: Fairness and Split-Scheduling
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Abstract:People are seeking solutions in diverse directions to cope with mobile data explosion and resource scarcity in mobile cellular networks. Of many candidate approaches, smart aggregation of LTE and Wi-Fi radios is a promising solution that bonds

4G LTE Network Design Around Budi Luhur University Campus And Its Neighborhood Area
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Abstract:The need for high speed data and voice is essential nowadays. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is one technology that supports user's need of high speed data and voice. LTE development is still centered in the big cities, it is possible for LTE to start developing

BER performance characteristics of DFT Wavelet based OFDM obtained for QPSK QAM Techniques for LTE
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Abstract:In 4th Generation Long Term Evolution (LTE) used techniques are Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO). In OFDM multiple carriers are used and it provides higher level of spectral efficiency as

Location-Aware Spectrum Sharing for D2D Underlaid LTE-Advanced with Power Control
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Abstract:In this paper, we study the uplink spectrum sharing in a device-to-device (D2D) underlaid LTE-Advanced network. The fractional power control (FPC) policy is proposed for both cellular user equipments (CUEs) and D2D users to reduce the cross-tier interference.

An Evaluation on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and its PHY Layers
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ABSTRACT LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a next generation communication technology. It is a standard by 3rd and 4th Generation. In this article, we give an overview the physical layer (PHY) of LTE transceiver is analyzed in downlink and uplink transmissions. A number of

Simulation of OFDM based Software Defined Radio for FDD-LTE Uplink
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Abstract: This paper gives an overview of Simulation of Software defined radio forLong Term Evolution (LTE) uplink based on Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing. Long Term Evolution is the outcome of the development of 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP).

Synchronization Method for LTE-based Machine-Type Communication in Low-power Cellular IoT
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Abstract–The significant growth of machine-to-machine (M2M) applications for low-power cellular IoT has compelled 3GPP to ensure that the future release of LTE can support massive transfer of small, infrequent packets using ultra-low-power and low-cost devices.

Hybrid fractional frequency reuse and almost blank subframe schemes resource allocation for D2D communication using LTE-A uplink resources
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Abstract In this paper, the interference management scheme in device-to-device (D2D) communication underlaying cellular networks is proposed to mitigate the inter-cell interference. the proposed scheme is a hybrid of fractional frequency reuse (FFR) and

The Impact of Cyclic Prefix on Capacity for LTE-A Using Open Loop Spatial Multiplexing
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Abstract: The Permanent need for increasing data rates has made the use of multiple input multiple output and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is useful in fourth-generation networks, but some of these techniques give a reduction in the level of data transfer. The

Q4HEALTH: Quality of Service and Prioritisation for Emergency Services in theLTE RAN Stack
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Abstract:Communications for emergency services have been traditionally provided with dedicated radio technology (like TETRA), however mobile communications are gaining more popularity for these scenarios due to their availability, price and spectrum usage.

TURKISH 4.5 G LTE-SPECTRUM AUCTION SIMULATION
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The auction is designed to simulate the auction of Turkey in 2015 as real as possible in the sense that it could be improving the strategies of the bidders so that winner's and loser's curses would be significantly reduced, but still make sure that the government side and

Beyond Coexistence: Traffic Steering in LTE Networks with Unlicensed Bands
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Abstract:In this article, we study how to efficiently utilize heterogeneous network resource for various service provisioning in LTE networks with unlicensed bands. Our focus is on traffic steering, which is to intelligently distribute traffic among heterogenous cells, radio

INTERFERENCE MITIGATION USING E-COMP IN MULTI-LAYERED NETWORKS OFLTE
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ABSTRACT Various technical solutions and innovations are enabling the move from macro only scenarios towards heterogeneous networks with a mixture of different base station types. But the major drawback with these heterogeneous networks is the interference

An Improved LTE RACH Protocol for M2M Applications
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Abstract: Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications allow multiple devices to communicate directly without human intervention. There will be a huge number of devices in the M2M communications that results in enormous congestion in the current Random

Chapter Y: LTE architecture integration with SDN
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This chapter gives an overview of the current LTE architecture and proposes solutions to integrate Software Defined Networking (SDN) technology with wide area mobile networks. The integration of SDN into mobile networks to become the Software Defined Mobile

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY POWER OBLIGATION WITH FEMTOCELL FOR LTE NETWORKS
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ABSTRACT Femtocells are relied upon to build system limit, broaden full scale cell scope, and present new administrations. Since Femtocells offer the same recurrence band with full scale cells much of the time, the femtocell Base Station (BS) must moderate the

Spectrally Efficient Frequency Division Multiplexing in LTE Downlink
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Abstract: Spectral efficiency is a key design issue for all wireless communication systems. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a very well-known technique for efficient data transmission over many carriers overlapped in frequency. The 3GPP has

Broadcasting in LTE-Advanced networks using multihop D2D communications
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Device-to-Device (D2D) communications can be combined in a multihop fashion to distribute broadcasts over user-defined (and possibly large) areas, with small latencies and occupying few resources. Such a service may be exploited for several purposes,(eg

Exploiting Multi-homing in Hyper Dense LTE Small-Cells Deployments
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Abstract:It is expected that in two-tier LTE heterogeneous networks, an extensive deployment of small cell networks (SCNs) will take place in the near future, especially in dense urban zones; hence a hyper density of SCNs randomly distributed within macro cell

Applying Beamforming to LTE Base Station for Reducing Interference Impact and Saving Frequency
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Abstract This paper assumes that Long Term Evolution (LTE) will be deployed in TV White Spaces (TVWSs). Beamforming is a technology that is applied to an LTE base station (BS) for reducing interference impact of LTE on DTV. A simulation method based on Monte

Performance Analysis of Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Application overLTE using various codec schemes
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ABSTRACT The WiMAX framework successfully underpins wide assortment of broadband remote access advancements, which including rapid web and sight and sound access with high caliber of administration (QoS) prerequisites. Constant administrations, for example,

Performance Analysis of Access Class Barring for Handling Massive M2M Traffic in LTE-A Networks
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Abstract:The number of devices that communicate through the cellular system is expected to rise significantly over the coming years. But cellular systems, such as LTE-A, were designed to handle human-to-human traffic. Hence, they are not suitable for managing

LTE Evolution towards Carrier Aggregation (LTE-advanced)
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Abstract LTE-Advanced network is commercially available at increased speed while LTE is upgrading day by day and helped to provide faster broadband services. LTE delivered all these enhancement by offering the state of the art combination of new air interface base

Performance Analysis of LTE Transceiver with PAPR Reduction Techniques
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Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) Techniques are introduced to lower the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) for the transceivers in both the uplink and downlink systems in the LTE. With 64 user's subcarrier, 256 subcarriers in the system and 4 phase sequences; the

WIDIPAY: A CROSS-LAYER DESIGN FOR MOBILE PAYMENT SYSTEM OVERLTE DIRECT
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Abstract Long term evolution direct, plus its features of device-to-device networking and proximate discovery, are new and emerging technologies able to come out of the shadow to render a whole new perspective at mobile payments. In this work, we propose a new

IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF SERVICE BY OPTIMIZING DIFFERENT KEY PARAMETER INDICATORS FOR LTE NETWORK
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The area of study proposed in this paper, is the optimization of the Quality of Service (QoS) for Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network. Azimuth optimization and tilt optimization are the main rules to optimize the LTE network in order to achieve the best radio environment.

REVIEW PAPER ON OPERATIONAL ASSAY OF LTE SYSTEM IN STINT OF OFDMA SC-FDMA
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Abstract-This paper presents a vivid view of recent trends and developments in Long Term evolution (LTE) systems. A complete analytic discussion is made on LTE systems based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) with cyclic Prefix (CP) in the

Interference Management for Co-Channel Mobile Femtocells Technology in LTENetworks
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Abstract:The dense deployment of Femtocells within the Macrocell's coverage is expected to dominate the future of Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. While Mobile Femtocells (Mobile-Femtos) could be the solution for vehicular networks when there is a need to

Security Architecture of 3GPP LTE and LTE-A Network: A Review
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Abstract–Mobile wireless communication is improving and getting mature day by day. Due to this, we need the improvement of high broadband wireless technologies. The 3GPP which means that 3rd Generation partnership project is a standard which is developing System

Resource Allocation for Real-Time Services Using Earliest Due Date Mechanism in LTE Networks
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Abstract:In this paper we introduce and asses the performance of a new scheduling algorithm based on Earliest Due Date (EDD) mechanism. Our proposed scheduling algorithm enhances the performance of Real-Time (RT) flows such as video and Voice

BER Analysis of OFDM in LTE using Various Modulation Techniques
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Abstract: The paper represents analysis Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of various modulation techniques. There are various modulation schemes such as Binary Phase Shit Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). The performance in between

Cross-network and Cross-layer Optimized Video Streaming over LTE and WCDMA Downlink
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Abstract:Video services are proliferating over today's mobile Internet and efforts have been made to improve their performance. The cross-layer video streaming that jointly optimizes the parameters at different protocol layers is a feasible solution but without bandwidth

Characterizing radio and networking power consumption in LTE networks
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Abstract:Power consumption is a key factor in how final users rate the quality of service in mobile networks, however, its characterization is a challenging issue due to the many parameters involved and the complexity of their dependencies. Traditional battery drain

Primary Component Carrier Assignment in LTE-A
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Abstract. Bandwidth requirement for mobile data traffic is on the rise because of increasing number of mobile users. To answer the requirement, Carrier Aggregation is proposed. With Carrier Aggregation and MIMO, operators can provide up to 3Gbps download speed. In

Robust Available Bandwidth Estimation Against Dynamic Behavior of Packet Scheduler in Operational LTE Networks
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Abstract:We shed new light on the mechanism behind how the dynamic behavior of a packet scheduler at the link layer in mobile networks degrades the accuracy of conventional available bandwidth (ie, unused capacity of an end-to-end path) estimation methods that

Review on Self Organizing Networks (SON) in LTE-Advanced HetNets
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Abstract: However, global service suppliers consider continuous interworking with available networks as the most significant factor, it is most likely that LTE-Advanced of 3GPP is chosen as international standard for 4G wireless communication. Self Organizing Networks (SON)

The Impact of Transmit Diversity in LTE-A Capacity
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Abstract: Transmitter using diversity technology to increase signal quality and reduce the error in the received signal by send the same data across a number of antennas number of copies of data across more than one antenna. In this paper we aims to study the impact of

A Radio Resource Sharing Scheme for IoT/M2M Communication in LTE-A Downlink
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Abstract:Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is an emerging technology which offers various ubiquitous services and is one of the main enablers of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. Nevertheless, the notion of cellular-M2M communication is emerging due

Performance Analysis Of LTE System Using OFDMA SC-FDMA
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ABSTRACT:-The low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in single-carrier systems has encouraged the Long Term Evolution (LTE) Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) to embrace single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) as the uplink

Evaluate Performance of Voice over LTE Networks using Voice Codec's
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Abstract:Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 3GPP standard for wireless transmission systems. It is also the first 3GPP wireless standard which is fully IP-based. Because of its probability to arrive very high throughput (for example 100 Mbps in downlink), an effective end-to end

User Location Tracking Attacks for LTE Networks Using the Interworking Functionality
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Abstract:User location tracking attacks using cellular networks have been known since 2008. In 2014, several Signalling System No 7 (SS7) protocol based location tracking attacks were demonstrated,targeted the cellular roaming in GSM

A Time-invariant Scheme for Handover Key Management Using Identity based Encryption in 4G LTE Networks
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Abstract: The 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used to provide continuous communication for the mobility based users with high data rate in 4G network. However, the security issues are of paramount importance and have been a recent research area in LTE. The

Self-Interference Cancellation in Full Duplex Radios and LTE-Unlicensed
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All the currently deployed wireless systems are half duplex. These radios establish the communication link by the use of different time slots (TDMA Figure 1.1) where sets of different time slots are assigned to the transmitter and the receiver to carry out their

IP Design and Implementation of a LTE-A Cell Blind Detect Scheme
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Page 1. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol.88 (2016) vii Table of Contents IP Design and Implementation of a LTE-A Cell Blind Detect Scheme 1 Wenqiang Dai and Mingbo Gou Tribological properties

Partial Transmit Sequence based Localized Single Carrier FDMA for PAPR Reduction in LTE Systems
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Abstract:In this paper, we introduce partial transmit sequence (PTS) based method to decrease the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the localized single-carrier frequency division multiple access (LFDMA) in the uplink systems. For a clip rate of 0.1% with user

Methods to Perform High Velocity LTE Experiments at Low Velocities
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Abstract:LTE is designed to support user velocities of up to 500km/h where experiments are expensive, time-consuming and dangerous. Fortunately, such experiments can be emulated at lower velocities by time-stretching the transmit signals. This method preserves

A 4-guideline Downlink Scheduling Strategy to Support Fairness and QoS forLTE Networks
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Abstract:LTE has been the main protocol for 4G networks, which supports large-demand multimedia service. How to schedule its downlink spectral resource, namely physical resource blocks (PRBs), has great impact on performance but is not specified in standards

A Review on Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over LTE Networks
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ABSTRACT-Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 3GPP standard for wireless transmission systems. It is also the first 3GPP wireless standard which is fully IP-based. Because of its probability to arrive very high throughput (for example 100 Mbps in downlink), an effective

Towards Elastic Application-oriented Bearer Management for enhancing QoE inLTE Networks
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Abstract:This paper introduces the concept of elastic bearer in Evolved Packet System (EPS), which allows, on one hand, the users to enhance on-demand the performance of certain applications and on the other hand, it permits the network to efficiently manage the

MIMO-OFDM Performance Analysis between Discrete Fourier and Discrete Wavelet Transform Techniques in LTE
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Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the main techniques employed in 4th Generation Long Term Evolution (LTE). In OFDM because of loss of orthogonality between the subcarriers there is intercarrier interference (ICI) and

Space-Time Fronthaul Compression of Complex Baseband Uplink LTE Signals
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Abstract:In this paper, we propose space-time fronthaul compression of baseband uplink LTE signals for cellular networks, in which baseband units (BBUs) support remote radio heads (RRHs) through fronthaul links. In particular, we assume massive antenna arrays in

LTE EVOLUTION TOWARDS 5G
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ABSTRACT The development of mobile telecommunication systems is a constant process and there is a high demand to add new features and further enhance the long term evolution advanced (LTE-A), also known as 4G. The development of telecommunication systems

DEVICE-TO-DEVICE (D2D) COMMUNICATION UNDER LTE-ADVANCED NETWORKS
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ABSTRACT Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is a new technology that offer many advantages for the LTE-advanced network such us wireless peer-to-peer services and higher spectral efficiency. It is also considered as one of promising techniques for the 5G

A reference setup to calibrate LTE Code selective field probes
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The ever changing landscape in the cellular technologies is witnessing the deployment of 4G services under the umbrella of Long Term Evolution (LTE). The introduction of these technologies requires a new reference setup to demodulate the radio frequency signal in

An Idea to Reduce 3G/LTE Wireless Energy Consumption
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Abstract. Unnecessary energy consumption of 3G network is a noted problem in this era of expeditious communication system. The use of smartphone is rapidly increasing in modern times. The network features of smartphone are also rising up with a fleet speed. In recent

Design and Performance Impact of Long Cyclic Prefixes for eMBMS in LTENetworks
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Abstract:Enhanced-Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS) technology enables Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks to provide an efficient delivery of broadcast services. When eMBMS is applied for TV broadcast over large areas, the durations of Cyclic

OVERVIEW OF LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) SCHEDULERS
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The increasing number of user s demanding service s have encouraged intensive research in wireless communications. Future generations of cellular communicat--ions requires higher data rates and a more reliable transmission link with the growth of

Performance Analysis of Scheduling Strategies in LTE based on Open-Loop Spatial Multiplexing MU-MIMO Transmission Mode
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Abstract: In this paper we will study the architecture of the Long Term Evolution LTE of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS with Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output MU-MIMO technique. Open-Loop Spatial Multiplexing OLSM is one of nine

On LTE-WiFi Coexistence and Inter-Operator Spectrum Sharing in Unlicensed Bands: Altruism, Cooperation and Fairness
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ABSTRACT The coexistence of LTE-U and WiFi in unlicensed spectrum is studied in the context of airtime sharing. We consider core problem where a set of LTE-U cells from different operators share the same channel as a co-located WiFi access point. We assume

Designing of Hairpin-Line Band Pass filters for DCS, UMTS and LTE-Systems
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Abstract Bandpass filters are essential components in any wireless systems. They are designed for selecting desired signal from other signals. Especially in crowded frequency spectrums, accurate filter characteristics are required to guarantee the performance of the

Diagnosing Channel Issues Using GTP Protocol Messages in LTE Core Networks
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Abstract:For some time now the volume of data traffic in Mobile Telecommunications Networks has far outweighed voice traffic and most users are more concerned about the quality of their data connection than their voice calls. Adequate traffic service requires

Air Interface for Next Generation Mobile Communication Networks: Physical Layer Design: A LTE-A Uplink Case Study
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target of the 4th generation mobile communication systems can only be achieved by using an efficient air interface, advanced Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna techniques, and wide spectrum allocation. Orthogonal

System-level Performance Evaluation of eICIC Scheme in 3GPP LTE-Advanced HetNet
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Abstract With the deployment of heterogeneous network (HetNet), time-domain interference coordination technology using Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) has been widely considered as a promising solution for interference elimination between macro cells and small cells.

A Comparative Study of OFDMA and SC-FDMA in Long Term Evolution (LTE)
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Abstract-Long term evolution (LTE) is a 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 4G technology which enhances the development in the field of telecommunication and by improving the performance of the network for the different types of traffic flows. As it is an

Traffic-Aware Techniques to Reduce 3G/LTE Wireless Energy Consumption
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Abstract. The energy consumption of 3G interface is a common problem in recent time. The most required subscriber to bring down the energy of a mobile battery is the user interface of 3G/LTE network. A huge energy is wasted only keeping the mobile device active but there

SYSTEM CAPACITY IMPROVEMENT IN FEMTOCELL BASED LTE-ADVANCED
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Abstract: In order to successfully compete to other existing and future wireless, cellular and wire-line services, the network designers need to fully consider the technical constraints that influence the whole design process of this kind of networks. The Long Term Evolution (

Validating Information Security Framework for Offloading from LTE onto D2D Links
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Abstract:D2D communications is one of the key technologies to enable aggressive spatial frequency reuse in future evolution of cellular systems. While the standardization efforts are far from their final stage there is clear understanding that security is one of the major

Unleashing VoLTE capabilities. Assessing the Migration from CS Voice to IMS-based Voice over LTE (VoLTE)
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Operator-provided voice services will gradually migrate from today's circuit-switched (CS) voice networks to packet-switched IP networks, using Voice over LTE (VoLTE) as the foundation to provide telecom-grade telephony services. In fact, the capability of

A Survey on Design of Compact LTE/WWAN Antenna for Tablet Computers
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ABSTRACT: Long Term Evolution (LTE), is also known as 4G is a rapidly growing common global technology and it becomes attractive for modern mobile devices such as the smart phones, laptop computers a tablet computers. The internal antennas embedded in these

dHSS-Distributed Peer-to-Peer implementation of the LTE HSS based on the Bitcoin/Namecoin architecture
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Abstract:The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) within the packet core of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a key node leveraged for essential operations, such as mutual authentication and access control. This centralized node is essential for the overall

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PAPR OF SC-FDMA AND OFDMA FOR LTE
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ABSTRACT Long Term Evolution is a new advancement in the era of cellular technology emerged in recent decade that can accommodate the features of quite efficient radio access with high peak data rates as well as high capacity for voice links. Actually it is a journey

First Measurements of Cloud-RAN LTE Smallcells in an Indoor Stadium
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Abstract:Indoor smallcell technology is generally associated with residential and small business applications. Due to the need for many smallcells to cover a large venue such as an arena or stadium, the mutual interference and handoffs between standalone smallcells

Enhanced Caching Strategies At the Edge of LTE Mobile Networks
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Abstract:With a boom in the usage of mobile devices for traffic-heavy applications, mobile networks struggle to deliver good performance while saving resources to support more users and save on costs. In this paper, we propose enhanced strategies for the

Analyzing X2 Handover in LTE/LTE-A
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Abstract:Handover procedure in LTE/LTE-A has been radically evolved when compared to the previous 3GPP standards. In particular, X2 handover is introduced to allow neighboring eNBs to handle the user mobility without the involvement of the core network. While most

Investigation of LTE Receivers in Term of Channel Equalization Techniques inLTE Downlink
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Abstract: In this paper we will introduce a comprehensive study based on LTE techniques that are used in order to eliminate or reduce different types of interferences that happens in the wireless communication channel and affect the received signal at receivers which

Device-to-Device Communications in LTE-Unlicensed Heterogeneous Network
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Abstract:In this paper, the authors examine how the envisaged Device-to-Device (D2D) networks can efficiently scale its capacity by utilizing the unlicensed spectrum with appropriately designed LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U) protocols. The LTE-U Listen Before Talk

VM2M: An Overlay Network to Support Vehicular Traffic over LTE
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Abstract:We describe a Vehicular M2M (VM2M) overlay network over random access channel (RACH) in LTE that aims to emulate the control channel (CCH) of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). VM2M overlay is implemented over a dedicated subset of preamble

An Effective Review on Relaying In LTE-Advanced and WiMAX Networks
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Abstract: LTE is a latest cellular system, it is standardized by 3rd Generation partnership project (3GPP), and it is employed to satisfy increasing customer demand for high speed services also to fulfil demand for user experience with full mobility. With the ever growing

LTE Direct as a Device-to-Device Network Technology: Use Cases and Security
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Abstract: While the Internet is evolving to the Internet of Things, all other technologies that are related to it are also advancing in a way to contain and support concepts like device-to- device networking, proximate discovery, energy efficiency and security. One of the fastest

OpenFlow-based Mechanisms for QoS in LTE Backhaul Networks
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Abstract:The growing data traffic demand is forcing network operators to deploy more base stations, culminating in dense heterogeneous networks that require a high-connectivity backhaul. This scenario imposes significant challenges for current and future cellular