water distribution system


A water supply network or water supply system is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply. A water supply system typically includes: A drainage basin

Extension of EPANET for pressure driven demand modeling in water distribution system
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The use of mathematical models for simulating the physical behavior of water distribution systems becomes standard engineering tools of water utilities for applications such as design, calibration, rehabilitation and operation. Currently, there are several hydraulic

Occurrence of Fungi in Water Distribution System .
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Abstract it is demonstrated that contamination of water distribution systems with fungi is determined by the number and species composition of the mycoflora of waters supplying a given Water Treatment Plant (WTP) and the effectiveness of their removal in the unit

Max-min ant system applied to water distribution system optimization
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Water distribution systems (WDSs) are costly infrastructure in terms of materials, construction, maintenance and energy requirements. Much attention has been given to the application of optimisation methods to minimise the costs associated with such

Graph partitioning for automatic sectorization of a water distribution system
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The best results for water balance and pressure control of a water distribution system can be achieved by defining some permanent districts, called District Meter Area (DMA), obtained by the insertion of boundary valves that modify the original network layout and worsen

Night flow analysis and modeling for leakage estimation in a water distribution system
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Water distribution system management is an increasing complex problem for a significant number of reasons. General requirements force water utilities to continuously improve and update their system in order to guarantee safe water to consumers at all times. In countries

Characterization of deposits formed in a water distribution system
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Performance indicators of water losses in distribution system
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NRW = Net production Revenue water = UFW + water which is accounted for, but no revenue is collected (unbilled authorized consumption). 8 Water loss is expressed as a percentage of net water production (delivered to the distribution system ) as m3/day/km of water distribution pipe

Water distribution system operation: application of simulated annealing
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The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained at all points in the system including the point of delivery. Methods to optimize water system operations have been restricted to

Non-invasive acceleration-based methodology for damage detection and assessment of water distribution system
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This paper presents the results of a pilot study and verification of concept of a novel methodology for damage detection and assessment of water distribution system . The unique feature of the proposed noninvasive methodology is the use of accelerometers installed on

Free chlorine residual content within the drinking water distribution system
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This paper explains the principle of chlorination and reveals the free chlorine residual content within a drinking water distribution system located in peninsular Malaysia. The study found that the free chlorine at user points was slightly greater than 0.3 mg/l, which is higher

A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) heuristic for water distribution system analysis
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Looped water distribution systems are conventionally analyzed by using iterative numerical methods. The aim of the applied numerical methods is to solve the system of non-linear equations which express the energy and mass balance at the nodes. Instead of the widely

Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk
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The deterioration of pipes in urban water distribution systems presents a major challenge to water utilities throughout the world. Pipe deterioration can lead to pipe breaks and leaks, which result in a reduction in the water carrying capacity of pipes and lead to

Chlorine concentration decay in the water distribution system of a town with 50000 inhabitants
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A numerical model of a water distribution network designed for a town with 50,000 inhabitants was implemented in EPANET. The paper presents a methodology for computing the chlorine residual concentration decay in the above urban size water distribution system

Application of artificial neural networks to forecasting water quality in a chloraminated water distribution system
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Accurate forecasting of disinfection residuals in a water distribution system (WDS) is essential for optimal control of disinfectant dosing in order to maintain good water quality within the system . The most commonly used disinfectant in the drinking water treatment

Dimension of water loss through distribution system and reduction methods in Turkey
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Current Turkish statistical evaluations indicated that approximately 50% of the treated drinking water in city center is loss and unaccounted. On an average, 30% of treated water is lost within distribution systems and storage leakages. Unaccounted usage of water is about

Assessment of the potential of scale formation and corrosivity of tap water resources and the network distribution system in Shiraz, South Iran
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The aim of this research is to. study the potential of scale formation and corrosivity of water resources and the network distribution system of Shiraz in Fars province, South Iran. The Langelier saturation index (LSI) was used to assess the seule formation and corrosivity. The

Effect of distribution system materials and water quality on heterotrophic plate counts and biofilm proliferation
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The biofilms on pipe walls in water distribution systems are of interest since they can lead to chlorine demand, coliform growth, pipe corrosion, and water taste and odor problems. As such, the study described in this paper is part of an AWWARF and Tampa Bay Water tailored

Degree of utilisation-The reciprocal of the peak factor. Its application in the operation of a water supply and distribution system
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The degree of utilisation provides both a technical and economic connotation to the analysis of peak (load) factors. It is the reciprocal of the peak factor and should be measured within specified time-intervals that will provide realistic values for the specific purposes of a

Leakage of trace metals by internal corrosion into drinking water distribution system
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A great portion of the heavy metals present in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is due to the raw materials used in manufacturing pipes, valves, and control devices, causing many health and economic problems as well as undesirable changes in water appearance

The premature deterioration of Zinc-coated steel pipes in water distribution system
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This paper presents examples of improper materials selection in choosing a pipe for a hot water distribution system . Despite the recommendations of both European Standards and Polish Research Development Centre COBRTI zinc-coated steel pipes were used for




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