NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR POWERFUL SOLAR ENERGY





At the size, size, physical, chemical and biological properties of nano-materials differ in fundamental and valuable properties of individual atoms and many matter. The properties in nano, we can create a wide range of potential applications for nano-materials discovery. One of these applications includes the creation of revolutionary potential energy. These are the sources of energy, including hydrogen, geothermal energy, unconventional natural gas nuclear fission and solar energy, while hydrogen is energy. Understanding of hydrogen as an alternative energy source, hydrogen gas is frustrated by gaps in technology which is not the efficient and economical storage and transport. Nanotechnology provides new approaches to fundamental questions about the interaction of hydrogen with nanomaterials which enable the more efficient and economical storage and transport of hydrogen atoms. Applications of nano-technology help us to make solar energy more economically. Nanoscience photovoltaic cells are used to improve the efficiency for creating efficient systems for conversion cost, efficient solar energy storage systems, or solar energy on a large scale. Also it is used in DC-DC power converters, fuel cells, nanocomposites for high temperature applications, CO2 reduction and clean-up , air and water filtration, waste and water treatment, hazourdous materials disposal, in-building environmental systems, remediation. Conventional solar cells are called photovoltaic cells. These cells are made out of semiconducting material, usually silicon. When light hits the cells, they absorb energy though photons. This absorbed energy knocks out electrons in the silicon, allowing them to flow. By adding different impurities to the silicon such as phosphorus or boron, an electric field can be established. This electric field acts as a diode, because it only allows electrons to flow in one direction . Consequently, the end result is a current of electrons, better known to us as electricity. Conventional solar cells have two main drawbacks: they can only achieve efficiencies around ten percent and they are expensive to manufacture. The first drawback, inefficiency, is almost unavoidable with silicon cells. This is because the incoming photons, or light, must have the right energy, called the band gap energy, to knock out an electron. If the photon has less energy than the band gap energy then it will pass through. If it has more energy than the band gap, then that extra energy will be wasted as heat. Scott Aldous, an engineer for the North Carolina Solar Center explains that, These two effects alone account for the loss of around 70 percent of the radiation energy incident on the cell

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multi walled nano tubes



Effect of Base Oil on the Anti-Wear Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-tubes(MWCNT)
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Abstract The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-tubes (MWCNT) are employed as anti-wear additives in mineral oil. The high specific surface area of MWCNT causes agglomeration and suitable surfactant is required to maintain MWCNT in the

Experimental Tribological Performance Evaluation of Nano Lubricant Using Multi-WalledCarbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNT)
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Abstract The tribological properties of the mineral base oils are enhanced significantly with the addition of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNT) particularly under extreme contact pressure conditions. However, agglomeration of MWCNTs significantly

Applications of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes in a Scanning Electron Microscope
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I want to acknowledge my supervisor Univ.-Prof. Ph. D. Peter Hadley for supporting me at my bachelor thesis. I want to thank him, for giving me the possibility to write about a topic I chose, to work independently and to follow my own ideas. I also want to thank Stefan

Electrochemical Reduction Studies on the Behavior of Thiosulfate on Multi Walled CarbonNano Tubes Paste Electrode
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Abstract The electrochemical reduction behavior of sodium thiosulfate in aqueous media on Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes Paste Electrode (MWCNTPE) has been studied in this work. The voltammetric techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep

A Study on Excimer Laser Treatment of Coolants with Suspended Multi walled CarbonNano tubes
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Fluids containing suspensions of nanometer-sized particles have been attracted as innovative coolants for nuclear systems owing to their enhanced heat transfer performance [1]. Additionally, recent studies show that suspended nanoparticles in a sodium coolant

nanotube solar



CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell employing TiO 2 nanotube working-electrode and Cu 2 S counter-electrode
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We proposed a CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC), which is constructed with a CdSe QD adsorbed TiO2 nanotube working electrode on a Ti substrate, a ring shaped Cu2S counter electrode, prepared on a brass substrate having a glass window, and

Carbon nanotube network electrodes enabling efficient organic solar cells without a hole transport layer
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We report on the effects of replacing both In2O3: Sn (ITO) and the hole transport layer (HTL) in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network transparent electrodes. We have produced an OPV device without an HTL exhibiting an

Carbon nanotube transparent conductive layers for solar cells applications
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The paper presents the investigation into a possible new photovoltaic (PV) application of carbon nanotube-based elastic layers, manufactured by a screen-printing technique. The optical and mechanical properties of these layers are investigated and compared with ITO,

A cylindrical core-shell-like TiO2 nanotube array anode for flexible fiber-type dye-sensitizedsolar cells
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Abstract A versatile anodization method was reported to anodize Ti wires into cylindrical core-shell-like and thermally crystallized TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays that can be directly used as the photoanodes for semi-and all-solid fibertype dye-sensitized solar cells (F-

Fabrication of partially crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays using 1, 2-propanediol electrolytes and application in dye-sensitized solar cells
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Keywords: TiO2 Nanotube Anodization Dye-sensitized solar cells abstract6 (2006) 215–218. [12] J. Wang, ZQ Lin, Dye-sensitized TiO2 nanotubesolar cells with markedly enhanced performance via rational surface engineering, Chem. Mater. 22 (2010) 579–584.

Frontside illuminated TiO2 nanotube dye-sensitized solar cells using multifunctional microchannel array electrodes
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Here we report a frontside illuminated TiO2 nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The photoanode with inclined microchannels (IMCs) formed by laser drilling acted as a multifunctional role for enhancing the cell's efficiency; light trapping, pathway for

Nanotube arrays as photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells using metal phthalocyanine dyes
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A highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) array was grown on Ti substrate by anodization method in HFH3PO4 electrolyte. The morphology and microstructure of TiO2 NTs were investigated by scanning probe microscope (SPM), scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanotube/Nanoparticle Composite as Photoanode and Cu2SnSe3 as Counter Electrode
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Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2 nanotube/nanoparticle (NT/NP) photoanodes and Cu2SnSe3 (CTSe) counter electrodes were fabricated. The effect of the thickness of the CTSe films on the DSSC performance was investigated. It was found that

TiO2 Nanotube Array as E cient Transparent Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with High Electron Lifetime
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Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a promising alternative to silicon based solar cells, with relatively high light-to-energy conversion efficiency and low production costs [1]. The energy harvesting mechanism is based on the absorption of the light by means of dye

Multiwall carbon nanotube coated with conducting polyaniline nanocomposites for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells
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Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) coated with conducting polyaniline (PAni) nanocomposites has been enforced as for quasi-solid-state electrolyte layer in the dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of MWNT-PAni nanoparticles on the

Study of titanium dioxide nanotube array for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells
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Abstract:Highly ordered, self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNA) have been successfully prepared by anodization of titanium foil in ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 0.01% ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The effect of variation of applied anodization voltage

Study of adsorption of methanol in an activated carbon and carbon nanotube matrix for use in a solar based refrigeration cycle
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This thesis seeks to investigate the adsorption capabilities of activated carbon and carbon nanotubes. The adsorption of methanol on both of these substances was tested for their application in a solar based refrigeration cycle. Research on carbon nanotubes and their

Carbon Nanotube Membrane Solar Sails A Challenge for Extremely Fast Space Flight
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Space sailing is a concept in space propulsion technology that is based on the use of solar or other radiation for propulsion. The sunlight, or the beam of electromagnetic radiation from a laser, are reflected by the sail surface and, since photons carry momentum, their

Enhanced photovoltaic characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanotube composite film based on dye-sensitized solar cells and charge-transport mechanism
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Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted great interest in academic research and industrial applications owing to their higher efficiency and potentially lower cost compared to traditional silicon solar cells [1-4]. As one of the most important part of DSSCs structure,

Patterned electrodeposition of CdTe nanorod and nanotube arrays for solar cells
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CdTe nanorod and nanotube arrays have been grown on indium tin oxide-coated glass slides through confined electrodeposition on lithographically patterned nanoelectrodes. While pattern definition by e-beam lithography yielded thinner nanorods and nanotubes,

Nanotube-polymer Solar Cells-an Alternative to Silicon
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Abstract Developing an inexpensive, renewable energy source is one of the most important scientific and technological challenges of our time. Solar energy is an inexhaustible energy source that could be harnessed to meet our growing energy needs in the future. However

Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Solar Cells
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Figure 1 (a) An SWNT film on the fused quartz substrate after the dry-transfer process.(b) The SEM images at the low and high magnifications of the SWNT film from spectra of the SWNT film under the laser excitation with the wavelength of 488 nm, 532 nm Abstract First proposed more than 20 years ago, dye-sensitized solar cells represent one of the most interesting non-silicon solar harvesters, with outstanding potential as low-cost devices with easy fabrication process. Their standard architecture is constituted by a dye-

Performance probe for Nanostructured and Nanotube TiO2 Photoelectrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
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ABSTRACT: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated by incorporating nanostructured and nanotube anatase based TiO2 photoelectrodes grown by a simple modification in hydrothermal technique. Morphological characteristics have been

High Temperature Stability of Plasma Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Nanofluids for DirectSolar Thermal Absorption
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Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly grown from stainless steel mesh were treated using an Ar/O2/C2H6 glow discharge plasma in order to add oxygenated functionalities on their surface, which in turn make them dispersible in polar liquids. Stable dispersions (

Significant Improvement in the Photovoltaic Performance of Carbon Nanotube-based SolarCells using Metal Oxide Layers
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Abstract A high Schottky barrier at the interface of the semiconducting layer and the metal contact limits the performance of photovoltaic devices. In this study, we demonstrated that the metal oxides MoOx and ZnO play an important role in reducing the Schottky barrier for

Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films
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ABSTRACT We present the single-walled carbon nanotube/silicon (SWNT/Si) solar cells approaching 11% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the stability of more than six months in air by exploiting the excellent optical, electrical and chemical properties of the

CARBON NANOTUBE BASED DEVICES FOR SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS
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Scale up of a Solar Reactor for Fullerene and Nanotube Synthesis
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Applications for fullerenes and carbon nanotubes either singlewall SWNT or multi-wall MWNT nanotubes are not yet fully developed, but it appears likely that they could have an interesting and important role to play in both fundamental research and new technological

Preparation and characterization of TiO2 coated carbon nanotube carpets as photoanode in dye sensitized solar cell
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One of the biggest challenges in the twenty-first century is undoubtedly the energy conversion and its storage. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been developed since 70s and are highly promising and cost-effective alternative to silicon photovoltaic. Dye-

niquel and iron nanoparticles to be used as catalyst for controlled fabrication of bulk heterojunctions of multiwalled carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer organic solar
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We present our system to fabricate catalytic nanoparticles of niquel and iron of controlled size and site density on different substrates. The diameter of the nanoparticles ranges from 5nm to 100nm. The substrates that we have used are quartz, glass covered with indium-tin

CARBON NANOTUBE NET AS A CONDUCTIVE AND TRANSPARENT FILM FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION
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Abstract Vertically aligned silicon nanowires arrays have been grown through a metal assisted chemical etching method [1] obtaining a heavily absorbing surface. Over this surface, a transparent and conductive net of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been formed

Role of Carbon Nanotube as a Main Hole Transport Layer In Hybrid Solar Cell: A Review
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Abstract:CNT being darkest material in the world capable of absorbing nearly all wavelengths, to efficiently grasp solar light energy permitting its use well in Photovoltaics (PV). This paper deals with the literature review on the CNT-Silicon based hybrid solar cell

Optimization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells
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High electron mobility, possibilities of multi-exciton-excitation and chirality depended wide- spectrum band gap of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) make it advantageous in photon absorption, photocurrent generation and collection processes of photovoltaic

Flexible transparent single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes: applications in electrochromic windows and dye solar cells
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Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks have emerged as very promising alternative to conventional transparent conducting oxides (TCO) for optically transparent electrodes, exhibiting comparable sheet resistance and optical transmittance but

The Fabrication of Barrier Layer Free TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and its Application for Highly Efficient Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
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Abstract This paper reports a novel method to fabricate barrier layer free TiO2 nanotube arrays and its application for dyesensitized solar cells. Through two-step anodization and utilization of surface stress, the TiO2 nanotube arrays were detached from the Ti foil and

WO3/TiO2 Nanotube Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting with Simultaneous Wastewater Treatment.
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Abstract Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the

Single-walled carbon nanotube assemblies for solar cells
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The unique nanoscale physical and chemical properties make single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) stand out as promising building blocks for the next generation energy and electronics. However, the much inferior micro/macroscale properties have been

CNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE-CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with outstanding electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties are expected to be the most promising materials for next-generation energy devices as well as optical and electronic devices. However, the structure

Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells based on Anodic Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays Sensitized with Heteroleptic Ruthenium Dyes
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ABSTRACT: Anodic self-organized titania nanotube (TNT) arrays have a great potential as efficient electron-transport materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Herewith we report the photovoltaic and kinetic investigations for a series of heteroleptic ruthenium

Single Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline/n-Silicon Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterisation and Performance Measurements
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Abstract Carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells are a recently investigated photovoltaic architecture with demonstrated high efficiencies. Silicon solar cell devices fabricated with a thin film of the conductive polymer, polyaniline, have been reported but these devices can

MISALIGNMENT IN ORIENTED TiO2 NANOTUBE ARRAYS ON CHARGE TRANSPORT, RECOMBINATION AND LIGHT HARVESTING IN DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR
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Semiconductor materials at the nanometer scale have received considerable attention for possible electrochemical and photoelectrochemical applications, such as sensors, photocatalysis, and solar cells. Interest in photoelectrochemical solar cells has focused

Nanotube-based Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
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Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have drawn great academic attention due to their potential as low-cost renewable energy sources. DSCs contain a nanostructured TiO2 photoanode, which is a key-component for high conversion efficiency. Particularly, one-dimensional (1-

Modeling of a Solar Reactor for Single-Wall Nanotube Synthesis
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Experimental results with a 50 kW solar reactor producing 10–15 g/h single-wall carbon nanotube's rich soot have shown that good quality product was obtained with helium and rather bad product with argon. This result is explained using a computational fluid

Dry-Deposited Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Doped with MoOx as Electron-Blocking Transparent Electrodes for Flexible Organic Solar Cells
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have emerged as materials for nextgeneration electrodes in organic solar cells (OSCs), offering a possible alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO)-based OSCs. 1 CNTs and graphene have excellent mechanical flexibility and are
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Nanotechnology - A new frontier for food security in socio economic development

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