smart grid IEEE PAPERS AND PROJECTS-2020



A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources.



Wind Power Integration with Smart Grid and Storage System: Prospects and Limitations
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Wind power generation is playing a pivotal role in adopting renewable energy sources in many countries. Over the past decades, we have seen steady growth in wind power generation throughout the world. This article aims to summarize the operation, conversion

Fault Tolerant Multi-subset Aggregation Scheme for Smart Grid
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As smart cities and nations are fast becoming a reality, so does the underpinning infrastructure such as smart grids. One particular challenge associated with smart grid implementation is the need to ensure privacy preserving multisubset data aggregation With the emergence of the smart grid the customers get the chance to involve in demand- side management and to combine renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources integration in smart grid is difficult due to intermittent and fluctuating nature of Renewable

Integration of Decentralized Generations into the Distribution Network- Smart Grid Downstream of the Meter
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Overcoming the integration constraints of intermittent and predictable renewable energy production are one of the main distribution systems operators objectives. Several solutions have been implemented and others are in the experimental phase, but most of these

Renewable energies evaluation and linking to smart grid
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To tackle the widespread challenges encountered during the management of power flow in electrical networks, the integration of smart grid (SG) is proposed as a viable solution to address the environmental and economic concerns. In order to enhance overall functionality

Cybersecurity for the Smart Grid .
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The security and well-being of societies and economies are tied to the reliable operation of power systems. Due to the advancements of information and communication technologies (ICT), the traditional electric grid is evolving towards an intelligent smart grid . Smart grid is

Temporal Motifs in Smart Grid .
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A complex network can be characterized by patterns. Such frequently occurring significant patterns are called motifs and in a time dependent network, they are called temporal motifs. One of the temporal networks where temporal motifs are observed and play a major role; isWith todays rapid urbanization, global cities are constantly expanding to accommodate population growth. It is estimated that global cities will add another 2.5 billion new residents by the year 2050. However, along with this rapid expansion also arises the need for cities to The advancement of information and communication technologies in the energy sector in recent times continues to transform the industry; concerning how power (electricity) is generated, distributed and sold to the consuming public. This convergence of informationThe use of information and communication technologies and computer-based software to enhance the quality, efficiency, and reliability of smart grids (SGs) have brought unwanted threats in these systems; one of the most important of such threats is cyber-attack Smart grid (SG) is a dynamic distributed grid that the production, storage and users of electricity will work together under specific control, in which an important challenge is how to achieve unified control of distributed equipment on coordinating generators and users Power system is undergoing tremendous developments such as integration of more and more renewable energy resources, advancements in power electronic interfaces, energy efficiency measures, control and introduction of more intelligence in the grid . This book

Android Platform Based Smart Grid Hybrid Load Control System
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The android platform based smart grid hybrid load control system is a cost-effective, reliable, effective, pollution-free and environment friendly system that uses solar and wind energy sources to generate electricity. The system consists of solar panel and wind turbines to Secure and continuous operation of a smart grid substation mainly depends upon the reliable functioning of its communication network. The communication system of a smart substation is typically based on a high performance Ethernet communication network that The smart grid control applications necessitate real-time communication systems with time efficiency for real-time monitoring, measurement, and control. Time-efficient communication systems should have the ability to function in severe propagation conditions in smart grid

Adapting Big Data Standards, Maturity Models to Smart Grid Distributed Generation: Critical Review
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Big data standards and capability maturity models (CMMs) help developers build applications with reduced coupling and increased breadth of deployment. In smart grids, stakeholders currently work with data management techniques that are unique and

Security Risk Assessment-based Cloud Migration Methodology for Smart Grid OT Services
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The primary goal of this paper is to present a security risk assessment-based methodology for migrating sensitive Smart grid operational technology (OT) services to the computing cloud, either on or off-premise. We created a baseline system architecture diagram for smart The smart grid will play an important role in the future city to support the diversified energy supply. Wireless communication, the most cost-effective alternative to the traditional wire- lines, promises to provide ubiquitous bi-direction information channel for smart grid devices

Exploiting TV White Spaces for Smart Grid Communications
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Although Smart Grid (SG) is conceived to be a fundamental paradigm shift in the area of power grid it faces one major challenge which is an efficient and reliable communications structure. In this paper, we identify a possible way in which SG can exploit the use of TVWS

Enhancing Smart Grid Development in Thailand: Smart Building, Smart Consumer, and Smart Policy Nexus
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J Kamsamrong publikationsserver.tu-braunschweig Thailand has been relying on fossil fuels in power generation, yet renewable energy is an attractive and alternative energy resource to mitigate their environmental impact. Smart grid technology can enhance renewable energy in the electricity system by integrating

Emergency System Based Smart Grid
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In this paper, new hierarchically coordinated approach to take the edge off and manage the effects of augmented grid complexity by smart grid which uplifts the electricity via hybrid renewable energy sources for the power system is planned. The perception is based on

Energy Management System on Operation of Smart Grid
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The integration of highly fluctuated distributed generations (such as PVs, wind turbines, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems) threatens the stability of the power and distribution systems. The main cause is that the power ratio between the supply and demandSmart grid networks demand reliable, efficient and real-time energy management by exchanging information. Transmitting and receiving information needs a two-way, secure, reliable and high-speed communication infrastructure, which should be capable to handle

PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SMART GRID
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A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses analogue or digital information and communications technology to act on information in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, trustworthiness and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity

NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 4.0
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The expansion of distributed energy resources and other technologies, along with changing customer expectations, have complicated the interoperability challenge. This revision of the NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Framework uses evolving technology and power system Due to different energy storage capabilities of electric vehicles and their unpredicted charging/discharging patterns, the load uncertainty has significantly increased on the utility grid . This load uncertainty has also enabled the elasticity in the power production through

A Survey of Cryptography-Based Authentication for Smart Grid Communication?
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The adoption of new means of communication in the form of internet-based communication, power line communication, wireless communication and other communication protocols have allowed smart grids many additional functionalities over traditional power grid systemsWith the evolution of smart grid system (SGS), many issues associated with traditional grid network, ie, power system security, monitoring and control, energy efficiency and aging of systems equipment are resolved. The smart system is flexible enough to integrate many

Predicting household energy consumption in smart grid based on seasonality using stochastic Markov chain
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In todays scenario the consumption of electricity is ever increasing and the electric grids are being upgraded to smart grids. A smart grid is an enhanced version of electrical grid where digital technology is used to communicate between utilities and consumers. This helps the

Salsa20 based lightweight security scheme for smart meter communication in smart grid
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The traditional power gird is altering dramatically to a smart power grid with the escalating development of information and communication technology (ICT). Among thousands of electronic devices connected to the grid through communication network, smart meter (SM)

The Effect of Retail Electricity Price Levels on the Financial Indicators of Smart Grid Rooftop Solar Power Systems: A Case Study in the Central Highlands of
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Background: There are many constraints on the use of fossil fuels and, many 19 countries have, therefore, conducted research relating to alternative energy 20 resources to replace conventional fuels. On 31 January 201 the Vietnamese 21 Ministry of Finance enacted a

A Cryptographic-based approach for electricity theft Detection in Smart Grid
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In order to strengthen their security issues, electrical companies devote particular efforts to developing and enhancing their fraud detection techniques that cope with the information and communication technologies integration in smart grid fields. Having been treated earlier

Comparison of the Paillier and ElGamal Cryptosystems for Smart Grid Aggregation Protocols.
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Many smart grid applications require the collection of fine-grained load data from customers. In order to protect customer privacy, secure aggregation protocols have been proposed that aggregate data spatially without allowing the aggregator to learn individual load data. Many Fulfillment of demand for power is the prime responsibility of generating companies keeping an eye with the dynamic behavior of load consumption. Maintaining the real time load- generation balance is a very challenging task, hence it is of utmost priority. The knowledge

A Bi-level Multi-objective Optimization Model for the Planning, Design and Operation of Smart Grid Projects. Case Study: An Islanded Microgrid
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The planning and operation of smart grid projects is an issue that has increased in complexity and requires further analysis. This is due to the increase of distributed generation sources, generation with renewable sources, storage systems, and a disarticulation ofThis paper provides an overview of the role of Smart grid in deregulated power sector. This includes the architecture and key feature of smart grid with Advantages, disadvantages and challenges to its adoption in the deregulated power sector. In the Deregulated power sectorProtection and automation in a smart grid environment often have stringent real-time communication requirements between devices within a substation, as well as between distantly located substations. The Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE)

Intrusion Detection in IoT-Based Smart Grid Using Hybrid Decision Tree
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Considering the growing trend of electric power consumption, resource constraints and the exhaustion of existing grid equipment, the issue of restructuring the electricity industry has been considered. Meanwhile, the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology and upgrading

Semantic Interoperability to Enable Smart GridInteractive Efficient Buildings
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Achieving a widespread transition to gridinteractive, efficient buildings (GEBs) depends critically on there being sufficient interoperability among connected building systems. While many critical elements already exist at the technical interoperability level (TCP/IP, BACnet

Smart Grid using Node MCU
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With increase in population and infrastructure, need for energy production is gradually increasing and to full fill the demanding needs of consumers is in organization hands. This brings the issue of energy production and energy distribution for the organization. Existing

Solving Smart Grid Local Problems Based on Constraint Optimization
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The appearance of several new electrical equipment types causes a strong demand for electricity. This brings cutouts causing very large losses. As well as the greenhouse gases emitted by the current plants can cause material and human damages. Smart Grids haveWe are delighted to introduce the proceedings of the third edition of the European Alliance for Innovation (EAI) International Conference on Smart Grid and Internet of Things (SGIoT 2019). This year, the conference took place at the Windsor Hotel in Taichung, on November

Cooperative Coverage Based Lifetime Prolongation for Microgrid Monitoring WSN in Smart Grid
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To take full advantage of the flexibility of access and disconnection from smart grid organizing distributed renewable energy resources in form of microgrid becomes one solution of energy replenishment in smart grid . A large amount of accurate and

Role of Smart Metering System in Smart Grid
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The proposed paper is regarding the importance of smart metering system in the smart grid and its implementation in India. The conventional energy meters have many disadvantages as compared to the smart meters. There is a huge increase in demand for power in India and

A REVIEW OF SMART GRID : EXPLORING THE INTEGRATION WITH CLOUD
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Power system became a complex network as it connects eighty percent of the world population at the end. Power flows from generation to transmission and distribution whereas complexity increases from distribution to transmission and generation. Proper distribution

Smart Grid
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LD Samanta 117.247.251.79 In the 20th century local grids grew over time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the 1960s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature and highly interconnected, with thousands ofcentralgeneration

ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN SMART GRID WITH DEMAND RESPONSE USING IOT
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In this paper a prototype is implemented for smart direct load control and load shedding, to minimize power outages in sudden grid load changes and reduce the Peak-to Average Ratio (PAR) with the help of Internet of Things to provide real-time load control and

UNIT-I: INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID
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To perform state variables analysis for any real time system. Apply the concept of optimal control to any system. Able to examine a system for its stability, controllability and observability. Implement basic principles and techniques in designing linear control

Genetic algorithms as an optimization approach for managing electric vehicles charging in the smart grid .
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Usage of the genetic algorithms for solving electric vehicles optimization problem in the scope of smart grid is an extremely actual problem nowadays. Electric vehicles are modern and promising alternative to conventional vehicles. They are characterized by lower

A Multidirectional LSTM Model for Predicting the Stability of a Smart Grid
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The grid denotes the electric grid which consists of communication lines, control stations, transformers, and distributors that aids in supplying power from the electrical plant to the consumers. Presently, the electric grid constitutes humongous power production units which

Smart Grid Using Machine Learning
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In todays world, wastage of energy has become more frequent which leads to build a system which will take another way to maintain power generation and make proper distribution of energy and that system is called as SMART GRID . In this paper we will be

Smart grid in the context of industry 4.0: an overview of communications technologies and challenges
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The recent advances in technology, the increased dependence on electrical energy and the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) were all factors in the increased need for smart efficient and reliable energy systems. This introduced the concept of the

Smart Grid Technology in Distribution System
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The conventional distribution system is not much automated. It needs a lots of updating functions with new power electronic device those are facing new changes in their structure, with the advancement of the power electronic devices and it need to be integrate with

VARIOUS-AGENT-BASED KEY METHODS TO REDUCE LOSSES CONCERNING SMART GRID
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Throughout here journal pair control methods based on agents of (SG) attached micro grid monitoring also control suggests loss reduction; decentralized or even hybrid Tacts for Control. this same offered technique has been developed via a Multi-agent (MA) system likeSmart grid analysis is the ultimate key for efficient use of available energy sources. This digital technology provides the utility and the customer with a two-way communication. It is an electrical grid that makes use of analog and digital data technology. On the other hand

SMART GRID ENERGY CONTROL IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING IOT
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The Internet has better potential for the development of smart grid applications. More and more distributed power generation, current aging grid infrastructure and calls for network transformation have sparked interest in smart phases. Widely used internal combustion

SMART GRID / SMART METERING CONVERGENCE SOLUTIONS SOLU?II DE CONVERGEN?A ÎN DOMENIUL SMART GRID / SMART METERING
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Sectorul distributiei de energie electrica se confrunta cu schimbari fundamentale sub aspectul retelei precum si cu modificari în privinta cerintelor clientilor care au asteptari din ce in ce mai ridicate pentru o functionare stabila, sigura si cu masuri adecvate de Cyber

The Design of an Experimental Model for Deploying Home Area Network in Smart Grid
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In the smart power grid designing an efficient and reliable communication architecture has an important role in improving efficiency, and maintaining the connectivity of different network components. The home area network (HAN) provides an energy management System is a vital part of the Smart Grid initiative, and also a reliable communication network that constitutes the core of the Automation Systems . Self-healing for smart distribution network is based Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) and is one of the key core

A survey on smart grid technologies and applications
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abstract The Smart Grid is an advanced digital two-way power flow power system capable of self-healing, adaptive, resilient and sustainable with foresight for prediction under different uncertainties. In this paper, a survey on various Smart Grid enabling technologies, Smart

Smart grid in the context of industry 4.0: an overview of communications technologies and challenges
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The recent advances in technology, the increased dependence on electrical energy and the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) were all factors in the increased need for smart , efficient and reliable energy systems. This introduced the concept of the

UNIT-I: INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID
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To perform state variables analysis for any real time system. Apply the concept of optimal control to any system. Able to examine a system for its stability, controllability and observability. Implement basic principles and techniques in designing linear control

Can Active Learning Benefit the Smart Grid A Perspective on Overcoming the Data Scarcity
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In the past decade, a plethora of efforts were given to the field of facilitating a better smart grid system by leveraging the power of artificial intelligence. Undoubtedly, machine learning is currently playing an increasingly important role in almost every aspect of power systems

Using AMI to realize the Smart Grid
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Page 1. Copyright 2008 Elster Integrated Solutions 1 Using AMI to Realize the Smart Grid David G. Hart July 2008 Page 2. Copyright 2008 Elster Integrated Solutions 2 What is AMI Page 3. Copyright 2008 Elster Integrated Solutions 3 Advanced Meter Infrastructure (AMI) Smart

Optimal and autonomous incentive-based energy consumption scheduling algorithm for smart grid
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Page 1. Optimal and Autonomous Incentive-based Energy Consumption Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grid A.Hamed Mohsenian-Rad†‡, Vincent Wong†, Juri Jatskevich†, Robert Schober† †Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada ‡

Smart grid security: Threats, vulnerabilities and solutions
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The traditional electrical power grid is currently evolving into the smart grid . Smart grid integrates the traditional electrical power grid with information and communication technologies (ICT). Such integration empowers the electrical utilities providers and

Literature review on smart grid cyber security
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The current US electrical power grid is an out-of-date infrastructure, and the Smart Grid is an upgrade that will add many new functionalities to meet customers new power requirements. Updating a system as complex as the electrical power grid has the potential of introducingThe 2003 blackout in the northern and eastern US and Canada which caused a $6 billion loss in economic revenue is one of many indicators that the current electrical grid is outdated. Not only must the grid become more reliable, it must also become more efficient

The cooperative internet of things enabled smart grid
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The strong coupling of Information and Communication (ICT) technologies especially via the usage of networked embedded devices with the energy domain, is leading to a sophisticated dynamic ecosystem referred to as the Internet of Energy. In the last mile of the

Security issues and challenges for the IoT-based smart grid .
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Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) is the next step evolution of our today Internet, where any physical object/thing having/equipped with computation and communication capabilities could be seamlessly integrated, at different levels, to the Internet. The Smart Grid (SG)

The smart grid and the promise of demand-side management
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Load shifting. Demand response (DR) programs transfer customer load during periods of high demand to off-peak periods and can reduce critical peak demand (the 20-50 hours of greatest demand throughout the year) or daily peak demand (the maximum demand during

Smart grid : an overview
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This paper briefly discusses evolution of Smart Grid development. Smart Grid is important as it will take us towards energy independence and environmentally sustainable economic growth. Growth of Smart Power Grid in India will slowly but surely take us towards fulfilling

Forecasting methodologies of solar resource and PV power for smart grid energy management
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Due to of the test of atmosphere and vitality emergency, sustainable power source era including sun based era has encountered noteworthy development. Progressively high infiltration level of photovoltaic (PV) era emerges in savvy matrix. Sun oriented power is

Solid-state-transformers: Key components of future traction and smart grid systems
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The efficient supply of electric power relies strongly on the selection of suitable voltage levels for different sections of the energy distribution system. When higher levels of power are required, a medium-voltage level in the tens of kilovolts range is typically selected. In

Intelligent Control Systems for Futuristic Smart Grid Initiatives in Electric Utilities
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Substation Automation Systems (SAS) provide reliable bedrock for future smart grid development in electric utilities. Implementation of high quality SAS system enables one to experience less outage rate using the state-of-the-art computerized functions of monitoring

The future-oriented grid – smart grid
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Since its emergence, smart grid has been given increasingly widespread attentions. Basically, smart grid combines a various modern technologies like network communication, information processing and distributed control to provide a more secure, reliable and

Smart grid expectations [in my view]
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T THE TERM SMART GRID IS AL-most becoming a household name. From the US president talking about the smart grid to television commercials on this topic, we have a plethora of activities around the world where engineers, policy makers, entrepreneurs, and

Implementing smart grid communications
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TECHBriefs 2008 No. 4 Burns McDonnell utility engineers to solve the problem of establishing robust data transport WANs to the distribution feeder and customer level. The proliferation of information technology utilizing Internet protocol (IP) transport over Ethernet

Smart Grid
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The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes $4.5 billion in funding now available for smart grid technology funds that can accelerate and expand Illinois investment in smart grid infrastructure. Illinois leadership in engaging stakeholders can ensure that the

Towards privacy protection in smart grid
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The smart grid is an electronically controlled electrical grid that connects power generation, transmission, distribution, and consumers using information communication technologies. One of the key characteristics of the smart grid is its support for bi-directional information flow

Smart grid projects outlook 2014
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Legal Notice This publication is a Science and Policy Report by the Joint Research Centre, the European Commissions in-house science service. It aims to provide evidence-based scientific support to the European policy-making process. The scientific output expressed Electricity usage at electricity rush hour (peak hour) vary from each and every service area such as industrial area, commercial area and residential area. Equalizing the power consumption in industry lead to the utilization of power in other service areas in an

Cyber-physical systems security for smart grid
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One thing that virtually all of the information hierarchy components must deal with is cyber and physical security. This webinar (and the associated white paper) focuses on identifying a comprehensive set of cyber security challenges and the need for security at multiple levels

Optimal operation by controllable loads based on smart grid topology considering insolation forecasted error
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From the perspective of global warming mitigation and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electric apartment houses or

Architecture design for smart grid
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1876-6102 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Hainan University. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2012.02.276 2012 International Conference on Future Electrical Power and Energy Systems Electronics and Information Engineering College

Electric field energy harvesting powered wireless sensors for smart grid
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In this paper, a new energy harvesting technology using stray electric field of an electric power line is presented. It is found that energy can be harvested and stored in the storage capacitor that is connected to a cylindrical aluminum foil wrapped around a commercialAs the Smart grid is intelligent power grid , combining information Technology to the existing power grid . Electricity suppliers and consumers exchange real-time information to two-way and is a next-generation power grid to optimize energy efficiency. This paper suggests the

Role of information and communication technologies in the smart grid
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In the smart grid operation and management, reliable and real-time information and communication networks play a very critical role. By integrating the appropriate information and communication technologies (ICT) infrastructure, automated control, sensing and

An analysis of smart grid attacks and countermeasures
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The threat of malicious attacks against the security of the Smart Grid infrastructure cannot be overlooked. The ever-expanding nature of smart grid user base implies that a larger set of vulnerabilities are exploitable by the adversary class to launch malicious attacks. Extensive

Smart grid cyber security strategy and requirements
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The Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) promotes the US economy and public welfare by providing technical leadership for the Nations measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests

Mosaik- smart grid simulation api
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Simulation is an important method to test and evaluate new control mechanisms for future Smart Grids. To generate sound simulation results one has to use validated and established simulation models. In this paper we present the first two out of six layers of our approach to a

Implementing the smart grid : Enterprise information integration
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This paper presents some of the merging Smart Grid applications and discusses information systems requirements for a broad-base implementation of the Smart Grid applications. It provides representative examples, discusses existing challenges, and presents

Communications and power distribution network co-simulation for multidisciplinary smart grid experimentations
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Multiple simulation tools have been built and studied independently in the communications and power system perspectives of IEEE P2030 to study new Smart Grid applications. However, very few studies have been done on co-simulation by combining both

Smart grid
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Massoud Amin is Chairman of the IEEE Smart Grid , an ASME fellow, and a member of two utility industry reliability groups the Texas Reliability Entity (as board chairman) and the Midwest Reliability Organization (as a board member). At the University of Minnesota he

Key smart grid applications
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The culmination of attention by utilities, regulators, and society for smart grid systems to address operational and electrical efficiencies, improving system reliability, and reducing ecological impacts, has resulted in a significant number of discussions around the

Cloud-based software platform for data-driven smart grid management
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There is a global effort to incorporate pervasive sensors, actuators and data networks into national power grids. This Smart Grid offers deep monitoring and controls, but needs advanced analytics over millions of data streams for efficient and reliable operational

Electric company smart meter deployments: foundation for a smart grid
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The energy grid is becoming increasingly digital. Electric companies are investing in smart meters, advanced communication and data management systems, digital sensing and control capabilities, and data analytics as part of a smarter energy infrastructure. 1 These This paper proposes a Stackelberg game approach to maximize the profit of the electricity retailer (utility company) and minimize the payment bills of its customers. The electricity retailer determines the retail price through the proposed smart energy pricing scheme to

Smart grid cost optimization using genetic algorithm
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Formerly, energy had been inexpensive and management of energy was efficient and was limited to elementary considerations. In the current scenario, due to a rapid increase in demand, complexity of the electrical network, probability of contingency and electricity cost Editors Daphne Mah Department of Geography Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong Peoples Republic of China Peter Hills The Kadoorie Institute The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Peoples Republic of China Victor OK Li Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Smart grid communications: Qos stovepipes or qos interoperability
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Interoperability is a key requirement for data communications in the smart grid . It has been articulated at great length by the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC). However, the interoperability issues identified here to date include only interoperability of the data

Energy consumption scheduler for demand response systems in the smart grid
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This paper presents a design and evaluates the performance of a power consumption scheduler in smart grid homes or buildings, aiming at reducing the peak load in them as well as in the system-wide power transmission network. Following the task model consist of

IEC 61850 based OPC UA communication-The future of smart grid automation
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Within this contribution, we outline the use of the new automation standards family OPC Unified Architecture (IEC 62541) in scope with the IEC 61850 field automation standard. The IEC 61850 provides both an abstract data model and an abstract communication interface