solar energy conversion







Design of the linkages type tracking mechanisms of the solar energy conversion systems by using Multi Body Systems Method
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Abstract:Nowadays the field of applied mechanical systems opens new horizons for the use of orientation mechanisms. The opportunity to use mechanisms with a sustainable purpose leads to new approaches in the development of renewable energy systems

Photovoltaic solar energy conversion
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This lecture gives an overview of photovoltaics: the direct conversion of light into electricity. The usage of solar energy for heat has a long history but the origin of devices which produce electricity is much more recent: it is closely linked to modern solid-state electronics. Indeed

Theoretical limits of photovoltaic solar energy conversion
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ABSTRACT A largely qualitative survey of solar cell principles is given. Ideas introduced include, the currentvoltage characteristic of a pn junction, the relation between energy gap and conversion efficiency, sad the possibility of increasing these efficiencies by (a)

Spectral-selective surfaces for the thermal conversion of solar energy
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The interest in the utilization (1, 2) of solar energy for many purposes has considerably increased after the energy crisis in 1973. Nowadays, two main conversion processes are emphasized, namely the conversion of solar energy into heat and the direct conversion of

Improving the incremental conductance control method of a solar energy conversion system
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Abstract. In the context of renewable energy, this study treats the case of the conversion of solar energy, which is one part of non pollutant energy, to electrical one. Maximizing methods of the generated power is discussed in this paper. Thus, the case of solar panel

Solar energy conversion
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4.1 Mimicking photosynthesis Mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films 4.2. 1 Light harvesting by monomolecular layers 4.2. 2 Preparation and morphology of mesoscopic semiconductor films 4.3 Photoinduced charge separation at the solid/electrolyte interface

Efficient titanium oxide/conjugated polymer photovoltaics for solar energy conversion
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Conjugated-polymer photovoltaics offer a non-toxic, easily manufactured, low-cost alternative to inorganic-based solar cells. The high absorption coefficient of most conjugated polymers and the high percentage of absorbed photons that produce an excited state ( Current research and development work in solar energy utilization is very briefly reviewed. Attention is drawn to the possible use of photoelectrochemical effects to convert solar energy directly to electric power or synthetic fuel. Photoelectrochemical cells that have been

Future Trends The purple membrane and solar energy conversion
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Halobacterium halobium, contains bacteriorhodopsin-a protein endowed with the ability to pump protons when it is exposed to light. This ability can be used, in principle, for direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. The sun bestows its bounty on the earth

Sustainable Energy Conversion Through the Use of Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery and Solar Applications.
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Chalcogenide materials for solar energy conversion
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Abstract: The problem of electrical energy storage can possibly be solved with the help of electrochemical solar cells, which are suitable to generate either electrical energy or hydrogen gas under special conditions. The greatest problem of the electrochemical solar

Effects of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity
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Abstract The effect of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity using photovoltaic (PV) modules in Port Harcourt (tropical climate region) was studied using a BK Precision Model 615 Digital Light instrument.

Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle
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To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency gsc and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies Eg in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailedbalance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal

Conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol using solar energy
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Conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol or to any other value-added chemical using solar light (known as artificial photosynthesis) is of great importance from the point of view of energy crisis and global warming problem. This note discusses the methods and

Fulleropyrrolidine-phthalocyanine: a new molecule for solar energy conversion
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Abstract. We report on photophysical properties of a novel dyad molecule having as antenna/donor a Zn phthalocyanine derivative and as acceptor a C60 derivative covalently attached. We found evidence for long living photoinduced electron transfer in solid state.

Studies in Nile blue-NaLS system for solar energy conversion and management: photogalvanic performance and conversion efficiency
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Photogalvanic performance was studied in photogalvanic cell consisting DTPA as reductant, Nile blue as photosensitizer and NaLS as surfactant in aqueous solution. Appreciable photopotential and photocurrent produced by this system were 812.0 mV and 165.0 µA,

Quantum and thermal conversion of solar energy to useful work
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This paper will summarize the results of a thermodynamic analysis of quantum and thermal processes for converting sunlight into useful work. Quantum and thermal processes acting alone as well as combined quantum-thermal processes will be discussed. Two types of In examining the potential role of solar energy conversion as a global energy option, I have been led to issues which ultimately require the tools of systems analysis in their clarification and resolution. Such issues are not only technical in nature; they impinge on both

Tunnel Junction based Rectenna-A Key to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar/Thermal Energy Conversion
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Abstract. This paper presents a quantum approachto increasing the efficiency of solar/thermal energyconversionby converting waste heat to electrical energy using rectenna. The approach of using a rectenna (a combination of high frequency antennae and tunnel

Working principles of solar and other energy conversion cells
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1. Introduction Energy, which can exist in a variety of forms, describes the capacity or power of a system to do work. There are many energy resources, including nonrenewable and renewable ones. Except for nuclear, tidal and geothermal energies, all resources of

Application of super-molecules in solar energy conversion-A review
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Abstract As molecules are made up by atoms, super-molecules are made up by suitably arranged molecular components. The review concentrates on the recent progress in studies of modified super-molecules and their applications towards solar energy conversation are

Use of'Toluidine Blue-Malei 'c Hydrazide System in Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion
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Although," photogalvanic effect was rst reported by Rideal and Williams ', butjt was systematically studiedhave discussed various problems encountered in the deve-lopment of thisteld. Theoretical conversion eiciency

Use of Surfactant in Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage: TX-lOO-Glycerol-Azure-C System
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The photovoltaic cells involve direct excitation of an electron by a photon and thus producing electricity. The photovoltaic cells have high conversion efciency but lack of storage capacity whereas the photogalvanic cells are based on some chemical reactions which give rise to

Biomimicry in Solar Energy Conversion with Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Photovoltaic Cells
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Pond scum may be a synonym for primitive, but the tiny organisms that compose it easily beat the human state of the art when it comes to capturing energy from the sun. Some purple bacteria answering to that unflattering description use light energy with almost 95%

Recent Progress in Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
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Abstract A review is given on some important roles of the solar PV technology in sustainable development of 21st century civilization. Firstly, the motivations of the industrial developments attributable to the energy revolutions since James Watt's steam engine of

ZeoFRETNanochannel-Materials for Solar Energy Conversion Devices
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Assemblies, polymers, crystals, and biological structures bearing nanochannels have been studied for many decades. Examples of nano-channel materials are zeolites, zeotypes, cyclodextrins, urea based assem-blies, mesoporous silica materials, collagens, metal

Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems
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Abstract. We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also

Potential applications for solar photocatalysis: from environmental remediation to energy conversion
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Taking into consideration the impacts of increasing concern as a result of human activity on the environment in recent decades, different approaches have been developed and proposed to minimize the persistence of organic and inorganic pollutants, not only the

Solar energy conversion by porphyrin-sensitized titanium dioxide
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The sun provides the earth with an abundance of energy in the form of light. Green plants and also many bacteria use sunlight for their energy needs. At present solar energy is a relatively unimportant factor in global energy production. Instead, fossil fuels-indirectly

Principles of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy
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This paper is an introduction to the topics of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. The paper presents the energy problems of the world: growing consttmption of energy and dwindling fossil fuels resources. Solar radiation is described as a main source of renewable energy

Direct heat-to-electricity conversion of solar energy
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ABSTRACT Traditional power plants generate mechanical motion in the conversion of heat to electricity. In direct heat-to-electricity conversion, electricity is generated from a thermal input without a working fluid. These direct systems are often scalable, quiet, and reliable.

Study on effect of reductant in Photosensitizer for Solar energy Conversion and Storage: Bismark brown–Oxalic acid system
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Abstract: An efficient photogalvanic cell containing oxalic acid as an electron donar, a dye Bismark brown as photosensitizer has been investigated for solar energy and storage. The photopotential, photocurrent and power generated by the photogalvanic cell were 888.0

Studies of cationic micelles effect on photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage in Congo red D-Xylose Cetyl pyridinium chloride system
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ABSTRACT The Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) has been used as cationic micelle species, Congo Red as photosensitizer and D-Xylose as electron donor for the enhancement of electrical output and performance (storage capacity) of the photogalvanic cell with reduce

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion
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Over recent years, there has been marked recent improvements in the e ciency of energy conversion of photovoltaics, enhancing this technology's potential as a long term energy generation option. This paper describes the physics behind these improvements and

Role of Reductant and Photosensitizers in Solar Energy Conversion and Storage: Oxalic Acid--Brilliant Cresyl System
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ABSTRACT Photo–galvanic effects were studied in a photo–galvanic cell containing oxalic acid as reductant and Brilliant Cresyl as photosensitizers. The photopotential and photocurrent generated were 320.0 mV and 80.0 µA, respectively. The effects of different

Tween 60–amido black 10B–ascorbic acid system: Studies of photogalvanic effect and solar energy conversion
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Solar energy conversion and storage by use of photogalvanic cell was studied in Tween 60– amido black–ascorbic acid system. Photogalvanic effect was studied in photogalvanic cell consisting of ascorbic acid as a reductant, Amido black 10B as photosensitizer and Tween

Retrofit of urban housing for solar energy conversion
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ABSTRACT This paper reports on the solar system retrofit of a rOI~ house in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for space and hot water heating. The constraints on the experiment were the design philosophy of mini miZing degree of retrofit, utilization of existing structure and During the last decade there have been many efforts in several laboratories around the world to develop photoelectrochemical systems based on semiconductor materials for the utilization of solar energy. During this period, hundreds of papers on photoelectrochemical systems

Maturity of Photovoltaic Solar-Energy Conversion
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In this chapter, the author explains the present technological and scientific maturity of the field of solar-energy conversion. The author builds on scientific foundations to generalize several upper limits of solar-energy conversion as a function of the geometric-

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: A New Prospective to the Solar to Electrical Energy Conversion. Issues to be Solved for Efficient Energy Harvesting
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Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are placed in third generation photovoltaics and are proposed as alternatives to conventional solar cells of silicon. DSSCs have numerous advantages over silicon based solar cells such as low materials cost, ease of production,

Second law aspects of solar thermal energy conversion
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INT1.. CONTKRIiSTK OSi COMJ'AKA II\ T'ASSl-ISSMI-'VIS Ol SOLAR POWhR IKCHNOI. OOII-S JIIKt-IALKM ISKAKl. H: B 1994 SOLCOM/ SECOND LAW ASPECTS OF SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION Adrian Bejan Department of Mechanical Engineering Duke

Direct conversion of simulated solar radiation into electrical energy by a perovskite thermoelectric oxide module (TOM)
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Abstract In this paper, the fabrication of a four–leg thermoelectric oxide module (TOM) is described. The TOM was made by combining two p-(GdCo0. 95Ni0. 05O3) and two n-type (CaMn0. 98Nb0. 02O3) thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in

Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of solar thermal energy conversion systems
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Since the energy input to solar thermal conversion systems is both time variant and probabilistic, it is unlikely that simple steady-state methods for estimating lifetime performance will provide satisfactory results. The work described here uses dynamic

Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy using optical concentration systems
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ABSTRACT Solar radiation is the largest inexhaustible and environmentally acceptable source of energy, but whereas thermodynamically speaking solar energy is of high quality, it is at the same time a source of low energy density. These aspects indicate the great

Review on the two-step-conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy
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Abstract The catalytic conversions of CO2 and H2O emerge as an attractive way to recycle CO2 and H2O to provide synthesis gas as an alternative fuel. Two-step-conversion method with catalysts shows a better performance among different techniques for converting CO2.

Photocatalytic hydrogen production and solar energy conversion by an oxide semiconductor
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The concept of using solar energy to solve the global energy and environmental problems are has been intensified from the standpoints to a technological assessment, since the energy and environmental issues in a global level are important themes tackled in the 21

Studies of the anionic micelles effect on photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversionand storage in Sodium lauryl sulphate-Safranine-D-Xylose system
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Abstract: The Sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS) has been used as anionic micelle species, Safranine as photosensitizer and D-Xylose as electron donor for the enhancement of the electrical output and performance (storage capacity) of the photogalvanic cell with reduce

Implementation of Novel Hybrid Wind Solar Energy Conversion System
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Abstract-Renewable energy technologies offers clean, abounding energy gathered from self- renewing resources like the sun, wind etc. because the power demand will increases now a days. We implement a fusion of Cuk and SEPIC converters for hybrid energy system to

Power Plant with CO2-capture and solar energy conversion in microalgae mass culture
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Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate a concept of a fuel reproduction after its burning and CO2 trapping. This concept is considered with practical (technical) point of view. We focus our attention on the involving of biological system of fuel reproduction

Photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion: Eosin–Glucose system
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A photogalvanic cell containing eosin as the photosensitizer and glucose as the reductant has been used for solar energy conversion. The photopotential and photocurrent generated by this cell were 412 mV and 16.0 uA respectively. The effects of various parameters like

Synthesis of Thermionic Materials for Solar Energy Conversion
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Abstract, Thermionic energy conversion is an ideal way of converting concentrated solar energy into electricity. Developing suitable emitter/collector materials, with optimum work functions whilst being able to withstand elevated temperatures under high vacuum

Electrochemical formation of semi-conducting oxides for solar energy conversion
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Abstract:-The formation of anodic oxide films on Nb electrodes in 1 MH2so4 and 1 M KOH, for potential region from 0 to 90 V SCE, have been investigated. The film thickness growth, refractive indices and dielectric constants of formed films, depending of applied potential

Recent developments in solar energy conversion-electricity and heat generation
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Abstract A highly-advanced and unique solar thermal electric and heat production system was proposed. The new solar turbine is invented and designed based on the Concept of Superposition (COS), including Tesla's viscous concept. The future electricity and heat

Control Systems for Solar Energy Conversion
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Abstract-The electricity generated from renewable sources is becoming more available. The choice of such renewable energy sources for consumers to support the development of clean energy that will reduce the environmental impacts associated with conventional

Study on the Performance of Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage
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Solar energy conversion and storage was studied through Photogalvanic effect using photogalvanic cell using Rose Bengal–Oxalic acid–CTAB System. The oxalic acid as reductant, Rose Bengal as sensitized dye and Cetryl hexadecyl ammonium bromide as

Material Properties and performance in photothermal solar energy conversion
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1. Introduction.-The complex nature of the photothermal conversion of solar energy, which involves on one side the collection and the absorption of sunlight and on the other side its transformation into useful energy, requires materials with carefully optimized properties in

Molecular assemblies for solar energy conversion Biomimetic approach
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Excitation energy migration followed by electron transfer forms the main components of natural photosynthesis. An understanding of these aspects is essential to reenact the primary processes in laboratory under conditions that are precisely repeatable. Here we

Synthesis of Covalently Linked Porphyrin Heterodimers with Potential Use in Solar Energy Conversion Devices
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The synthesis and spectral properties of porphyrin derivative dyads are described. The dyads consist of free base 2-(2-carboxyvinyl) tetraphenylporphyrin covalently linked to zinc 5-(p-aminophenyl)-10, 15, 20-triphenylporphyrin by an amide bond. These

efficient conversion of solar energy



Effects of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity
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Abstract The effect of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity using photovoltaic (PV) modules in Port Harcourt (tropical climate region) was studied using a BK Precision Model 615 Digital Light instrument.

Efficient Conversion of Solar Energy to Electricity and Fuels
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This study aims to elucidate the underlying factors of the energy transfer process at the quantum dot interface with steady-state and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy techniques. Quantum dots show high quantum yields, narrow emission and broad

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DC-DC CONVERTERS FOR EFFICIENT SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION FOR AUTOMOBILE APPLICATIONS
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ABSTRACT Shortage in Power, Depleting Non-renewable resources has started a revolution towards the use of renewable energy sources. More than quantity, the rate of energy conversion or the quality/efficiency of energy conversion plays an important role. In

LUMINESCENT CONCENTRATORS BASED ON INORGANIC/ORGANIC NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION
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ABSTRACT The supramolecular organization of dye molecules in the linear channels of zeolite L (ZL) is used as a basis to develop materials for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between light absorbing and

More papers on solar energy



Primary stage of solar energy use in architecture–Shadow control
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ABSTRACT In architecture and urban design, solar energy plays an important role to save fossil energy and preserve environment. Passive or active use of this energy needs especial consideration in the preliminary stage of design to the probable shadows.

SOME SOLID PROPERTIES OF FeCuS THIN FILM APPLICABLE IN SPECTRAL SELECTIVITY APPLICATION IN SOLAR ENERGY
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ABSTRACT Thin films of Iron Cupper Sulphide (FeCuS) of concentrations 1.66 OM, 1.574 M and 1.566 M respectively were deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of the films deposited ranged from 1.03 to 87.3 x 10-2 µm. Solution growth technique was

Photobiological Solar Energy Harvest
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the United States consumed 36.96 quadrillion BTUs (39 quadrillion economy standards and unconventional vehicle technologies, this number is expected to

The Behaviour of Low-Cost Passive Solar Energy Efficient House, South Africa
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A comfortable indoor environment is one of the main requirements of a well- designed house yet most of the low-cost houses are characterised by poor thermal performance. Mainly poor design, sub-standard building materials and poor craftsmanship

Concentration of Solar Energy Using Optical Systems Designed from a Set of Conical Rings
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Different types of optic systems have been designed, manufactured, and used to concentrate energy, be it solar or otherwise. To mention just a few, we have for example, 1) the design and manufacture of a non-imaging Fresnel lens prototype for use in a solar

Estimation of Solar Energy Influx to the Sea in the Light of Fast Satellite Technique Development
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Solar radiation plays a fundamental role in the marine environment. It supplies the energy that drives thermodynamic and photochemical processes in the sea, including the heating of waters, their stratification and movement, and their evaporation,

Application of Solar Energy in the Processes of Gas, Water and Soil Treatment
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Shortening of natural resources will impose greater limitations on electric energy consumption in various fields including treatment technologies. Moreover, with increasing of environmental awareness in the society there comes the need of shifting

Terminal Evaluation of UNEP GEF Project Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment-SWERA
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System GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation GsT Geospatial Toolkit GTZ German Agency for Technical Cooperation INPE National Institute for Space Research, Brazil IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency ISES International Solar Energy Society

The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.
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 Even Larry Hagman, the actor who played JR Ewing, the calculating oil executive on the popular long-running show Dallas, has been won over by solar energy. In a recent television commercial to promote solar power and SolarWorld, a German

STRATEGIES FOR REDUCTING PEAK DEMAND IN NET-ZERO ENERGY SOLAR HOMES
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Model Predictive Control Toolbox 3 User s Guide. The Mathworks. Braun, JE (2003). Load Control Using Building Thermal Mass. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 125, 292.  Solar Energy 84(11), 1892-1907. Gyalistras, D., OptiControlTeam. 2010.

Energy Performance, Comfort and Lessons Learned From a Near Net-Zero Energy Solar House
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solar energy collected (by collecting both electrical and thermal energy) and is integrated into the building itself, forming the outer layer of the metal roof (on the south top side). An issue that should be considered, when dealing with active solar energy collection, is snow

OPTIMIZATION OF NET-ZERO ENERGY SOLAR COMMUNITIES: EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY DUE TO OCCUPANT FACTORS
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investigation of geometric form effects on solar potential of housing units, Solar Energy,

ISOBARIC HEAT CAPACITY AT HIGH PRESSURE AND VISCOSITY OF A DIPHENYL ETHER+ BIPHENYL MIXTURE FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
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thermal storage fluids for solar parabolic trough systems, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering.

Solar Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes
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Abstract In this paper, we propose a system for collecting solar energy in the ambient environment. The system power supplies a module whose role is to measure the ambient temperature. For system supplying is used battery and small size of solar panel.

Embedded Controller in Farmers Pump by Solar Energy
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ABSTRACT The primary aim of this project is to develop and atomize the solar farmers pump (water pump) considering the power supply, direct current (DC), Alternating current (AC), inverter frequency, a well, water level in the well, submersible monoblock

Estimating Global Solar Energy Using Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network
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ABSTRACT This paper presents a global solar energy estimation method using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The clearness index is used to calculate global solar irradiations. The ANN model is based on the feed forward multilayer perception model

Research and Application of Solar Energy Photovoltaic-Thermal Technology
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It is believed that in the past 100 years, new technology created by mankind not only provides unprecedented power of economic development, but also provides mankind with a great ability to be harmony with the environment. Modern society should

SOLAR ENERGY IN SERBIA
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ABSTRACT The paper focuses on development of solar energy, sun radiation potential and legislation regulating the use of sun radiation in Serbia. It also provides a description of the current state of affairs in the area of low temperature and photovoltaic

Hygroscopicity-modified Passive Solar Design of Energy Saving Buildings
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BASIC ASSESSMENTS FOR ENERGY STORING IN LONG ENDURANCE SOLAR POWERED AIRCRAFT
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airspace. the simplified idea of typical mission pursued by long endurance solar powered aircraft is illustrated below (Fig. 1). the aircraft is assumed to be powered by solar energy driving elec- tric engines and propellers. During

STRUCTURAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITED COPPER SULFIDE THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSIONS
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Copper sulfides belong to the I-IV compound semiconductor materials and are among the chalcogenide compounds with several applications in Nanosciences. They have been found very useful in coating solar energy conversion systems and solar control

Design and simulation of electronic Instruments for Solar Energy measurement systems
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ITH expansion of urbanization and population the energy requirement is increasing day by day which leads to extraction of renewable resources of energy, like sun and wind among these sun energy has a vast potential to fulfill the energy needs.

INVESTIGATION OF SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE AND HEAT INSULATION IN THE EXPLOITATION OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR ENERGY
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This paper analyses the exploitation of solar energy by wholly relying on it to heat homes by 100% solar heating in Hungary. It determines the necessary amount of heat and the heat storage capacity and considers the time sequence between charge and

THE USE OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW-ENERGY HOUSES IN THE WARM HUMID CLIMATE
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ABSTRACT The high cost of fuel in Nigeria in the past few years calls for proper use of energy resources, especially in the building sub-sector. Architects and Engineers hitherto have designed buildings that use technology with high energy demand

Low Cost Water Disinfectant System Using Solar Energy
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ABSTRACT Solar disinfection unit is unsophisticated, efficient and reasonably priced water treatment process appropriate for use in developing countries. Water was filtered through cloth, net and coconut husk to remove any suspended particles in water

Designing of Hybrid Power Generation System using Wind energy-Photovoltaic Solar energy-Solar energy with Nanoantenna
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ABSTRACT All the natural wastage energies are used for production of Electricity. Thus, the Electrical Power or Electricity is available with a minimum cost and pollution free to anywhere in the world at all times. This process reveals a unique step in

Applying an Advanced Technique on AlGaAs GaAs Solar Cells to Achieve the Optimum and Constant Energy
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Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. GW Crabtree, NS Lewis, energy sciences workshop on solar energy utilization. Argonne National Laboratory USA



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