voltage sensor


Voltage and current sensors play very important role in safety of electrical equipment and systems. Majority of faults, incidents, and accidents associated with electrical equipment and systems are as a result of under voltage and over voltage. It is important to know the exact amount of current and voltage is a particular system and application as it enables the engineer or technician to make and implement safety-critical decisions.

Voltage – sensor control of Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle: insights from skinned fibers
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Important aspects of the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling process in skeletal muscle have been revealed using mechanically-skinned fibers in which the transverse-tubular system can be depolarized by ion substitution or electrical stimulation, activating the voltage- sensors which

Phosphatidic acid modulation of Kv channel voltage sensor function
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Membrane phospholipids can function as potent regulators of ion channel function. This study uncovers and investigates the effect of phosphatidic acid on Kv channel gating. Using the method of reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers, in which protein and lipid components

In-situ monitoring of temperature and voltage in lithium-ion battery by embedded flexible micro temperature and voltage sensor
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Lithium-ion batteries are utilized in mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), 3C products and electric vehicles. Batteries must be rapidly chargeable. They discharge in devices. In both processes, the temperature in the battery increases rapidly. Safety is very

Whats in gating currents Going beyond the voltage sensor movement
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analyzed how the voltage dependence of gating currents in Shaker K+ channels is affected by conditioning depolarization. The authors proposed that although a depolarization slows

Proton currents constrain structural models of voltage sensor activation
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The Hv1 proton channel is evidently unique among voltage sensor domain proteins in mediating an intrinsic aqueous H+ conductance (GAQ). Mutation of a highly conserved gating charge residue in the S4 helix (R1H) confers a resting-state H+ shuttleconductance

Developed MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic systems without a voltage sensor
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This paper presents a study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic arrays with only one current sensor. Initially, a review of MPPT methods with only a current sensor is performed with extension for a variety of dc/dc converters. Furthermore, the same topology

The interaction of voltage – sensor and gate in BK channels
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Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Large conductance, Ca2þ and voltage-dependent (BK) channels modulate physiology processes such as smooth muscle contraction and neurotransmission. BK channels are composed of the pore-forming

Sensor less voltage control of CHB multilevel inverter fed three phase induction motor with one dc source per each phase
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To track the voltage of the source and capacitor it needs a voltage sensor In this paper a new CHB sensor three less inverter fed by induction motor is proposed for generating three phase five level output with single DC source per phase and a single capacitor phase

Integrated Battery Management System Combining Cell Voltage Sensor and Leakage Sensor
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The issues of global warming and the tightening of legal restrictions have caused the market environment to move towards widespread use and expansion of electrically driven vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) are equipped with

Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis to identify the residues involved in coupling between the pore and DIII voltage – sensor of a sodium channel
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Voltage dependence and non-sensor residues
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The voltage sensor (VS) coupling to the pore domain (PD) was accessed by plotting V1, the last step, with V0.5 for L358X (R2=0.68) and L361X (R2=0.91). V0.5 changes in both cases are not well correlated with V0 (R2 0.45)

Impulse voltage sensor based on electret technology
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It is known that lightning produces impulse voltages and currents in distribution and transmission lines. There are a few methods used for measuring peak currents such as magnetic links magnetic tapes and for measuring peak voltages such as electret transducer

Sensing Voltage Transients Using Built-in Voltage Sensor
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Voltage transient is a kind of voltage fluctuation caused by circuit inductance. If strong enough, voltage transients can cause system failure or permanent hardware damage. To effectively measure voltage transient is a undergoing research topic for many research The Shaker K+ channel is a tetramer, with each monomer having six transmembrane segments. The channel is voltage-activated and the positively charged fourth segment, S4, is an important part of the voltage sensor . Voltage activation involves the displacement of ten

Voltage – Sensor Relaxation in Hv1 Proton Channels
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28a Sunday, March 6, 2011 potentials. The magnitude of the shift in V0. 5 was observed to depend on the duration of the prepulse over the range of 0.1-5.0 s. These observations demonstrate that Hv1 manifests VS relaxation and suggest that relaxation occurs

Clamp On Power Logger PW3365 Safety Voltage Sensor PW9020
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The Clamp On Power Logger PW3365 is a power meter that can measure voltage, current, and power from outside a cable, without the need to establish contact with a metal surface. The Safety Voltage Sensor PW9020 is a voltage sensor designed specifically for use with

CatSper has a Calcium-Permeable Voltage Sensor Domain
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Each subunit has six trans-membrane segments (S1-S6). Some features of the primary structure, such as positively charged amino acids in the fourth

Voltage sensor module in NaV1. 4: S1-S3 charges regulate fast inactivation
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University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. The question of how S4 charges are stabilized in the hydrophobic membrane environment is of critical importance to understand the function of voltagegated ion channels (VGICs). Besides lipids, proteinaceous

Development of A Water-Pump Control Unit with Low Voltage Sensor
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In most developing countries, water is usually sent to storage tanks from underground wells using pumping machines which are electrically driven. When voltage becomes insufficient (low voltage supply) to run the electric motor, its windings start to hum and heat up. If this

Voltage Sensor Activation Facilitates Magnesium-Gated Channel Opening in BK Channels
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Ku (BKCa, Slo1 BK, or KCa1. 1) channels were quickly and reversibly activated by intracellular Zn2u. Zn2u did not affect the unitary conductance but significantly increased the channel open probability. Macroscopic current measurements showed that Zn2u-mediated







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