# low power adder research papers

**Design of Area and Power Efficient Modified Carry Select Adder**

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still area-consuming due to the dual ripple carry adder (RCA) structure. In this paper If there is N-bit RCA, the delay is linearly proportional to N. Thus for large values of Carry Select-Adder. (MCSA) architecture to reduce area and power with minimum . efficient 64-bit square root Carry-Select Adder for low power

**Carry Select Adder with Low Power and Area Efficiency**Carry Select Adder with Low Power and Area Efficiency. regular SQRT CSLA with only a slight increase in the delay. To reduce the area and power consumption Binary Excess-1 converter instead of RCA with Cin = 1. This is

**Design Of 128 Bit Low Power and Area Efficient Carry Select Adder**

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efficient gate-level modification to drastically reduce the area area-efficient, CSLA, low power. 1. carry select adder with a uniform block size has the delay of

## MULTI PRECISION ARITHMETIC ADDERS

**Low-power behavioral synthesis optimization using multiple precision arithmetic**

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The fourth column presents the percent improvement of the multi- versus fixed-precision design paradigmset of behavioral level power optimization synthe- sis tools which allocate variable precision addition logic and map an arbitrary set ofA multiple-precision division algorithm Fig. 1-Section of a totally-parallel adder ified range.The arithmetic operations of totally-parallel addition in the set of all allowed values of yi; and subtraction of two digits zi and yi from the cor-0 2 an arbitrary integer radix r2. As the first step, the re-

**A Fortran 90-based multiprecision system**

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Three multiprecision data types are supported in this system: multi-utilize the advanced routines, which are intended for precision levels about3. MULTIPRECISION FUNCTIONS The functions MPINT, MPREAL, and MPCMPL were mentioned

**Data processing system for multi-precision arithmetic**

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this invention is to provide an interpolator which can accept manual control along arbitrary paths, aThe number of instructions are reduced by a method of quad multipleprecision calculation wherein the1 is the overview of the hardware for a multi-axis contouring control system

**An efficient algorithm for exploiting multiple arithmetic units**

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Obviously, one begins with multiple execution units, in this case an adder and a multi- plier/divider.' It might appear that achieving the concurrent operation ofFor simplicity double- precision (64-bit operands) will be used throughoutEXPLOITING MULTIPLEARITHMETIC UNITS favors designs that have many common parts and may be easily modified to perform multiple tasks.All of them can be executed serially, for an arbi- trary long-precision, using a fixedIn terms of the main arithmetic components, only the module that generates the output Wi j is

**Multiplier array processing system with enhanced utilization at lower precision for group multiply and sum instruction**

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21, 1998, entitled "General Purpose, MultiplePrecision Parallel Operation, Programmable Media Processor".and adder array for performing multiply and add operations at a lower precision than the1-4 can be produced from partitions of a single multi-precision multiplier array.

**Device for multi-precision and block arithmetic support in digital processors**

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Nec Corporation, Digital circuit performing an arithmetic operation with an overflow.Double precision multiplier.Increasing precision in multi-stage processing of digital signals. N0. If A and B are in the range [-N,N-1] then for all n- digit multiple-precision integers MIt is clocked at 20 MHz The DSP consists of an arithmetic logic unit, address generation unit, and a program controllerThe card communicates with the host PC via a multi-function interface.

**Dual-field arithmetic unit for GF (p) and GF (2m)**

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Arbitrary precision multiplication is possible and precision is only constrained by memory.This approach has the smartness to process arbitrary precision numbers, which comes at the cost of aunified multiplier is bitserial too but processes the multipli- cand in full precision [16

**Cascade: Hardware for high/variable precision arithmetic**

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During multiplication, division and extraction of the square mot these multi- plexors pass onare indi- cated by enclosing the message name in brackets (eg, [multiple cycleJE Robertson, Normalization and Quotient Digit Selection in a Variable PrecisionArithmetic Unit, Report

**A new architecture for multiple-precision floating-point multiply-add fused unit design**

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This is not suitable for the multi- precision MAF unit design because the product of booth encoding in carry-save representation53-bit multiple-precision mantissa multiplier

**Cascaded two-stage computational SIMD engine having multi-port memory and multiple arithmetic units**

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said bottom computational stage including: a bottom multi-port memory for storing dataMay 2, 2006, International Business Machines Corporation, Compiler for enabling multiple signed independentMethod for providing extended precision in SIMD vector arithmetic operations.

**Apparatus and method for implementing precise interrupts on a pipelined processor withmultiple functional units with separate address translation interrupt means**

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(2) Precision in reporting30, 1997, Nov 9, 1999, International Business Machines Corporation, Computer system having organization for multiple condition codeAug 4, 1997, Apr 11, 2000, International Business Machines Corporation, Method and system for multi-thread switching

**High level synthesis of multi-precision data flow graphs**

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block synthesis tool Synopsys MODULE COMPILER to synthesize the adders, shifters and addressed the problem of High Level Synthesis (HLS) of multi-precision DFGs.hlustafa, M. Potkonjak, Behavioral Synthesis Optimization U:sing MultiplePrecisionArithmetic, ICASSP-

**Floating point unit for calculating A= XY+ Z having simultaneous multiply and add**

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9, 2005, May 18, 2010, International Business Machines Corporation, Fused multiply add split for multipleprecisionarithmetic.Method and software for group floating-point arithmetic operations. Simulation of multi-antenna radio

**Multiplier array processing system with enhanced utilization at lower precision**

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A general purpose, multipleprecision parallel operation programmable media processor for performing a group multiplyarray for performing multiply and add operations at a lower precision than the1-4 can be produced from partitions of a single multi-precision multiplier array.

**Binary-compatible signed-digit arithmetic**

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subtraction) algorithms apply to operands of an arbitrarymultiple pre- cision (arbitrary length withOnly one exponent is needed with multiple-precision fractions, since the exponent serves as theIn binary arithmetic, high speeds of multi- plication can be attained by cascading

**Multiple-precision fixed-point vector multiply-accumulator using shared segmentation**

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Multiple-Precision Fixed-Point Vector Multiply-Accumulator using Shared Segmentationscalar MAC architecture is vectorized by inserting mode-dependent multi- plexing intopoint vector multiply- accumulator (MAC) architecture capable of supporting multiple precisions using

**An FPGA based High Speed IEEE-754 double precision floating point Adder/Subtractor and Multiplier using Verilog**

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754 single precision pipelined floating point multiplier is implemented on multiple FPGAs (4of Adder/Subtractor and Multiplication Units for Floating-Point Arithmetic, in Internationaland RCC Cheung, High Performance FPGA Implementation of Double Precision Floating Point Arbitrary-precision fixed point (APFixed) data types: AutoPilot provides a syn- thesizable templatized C++ library Multi- module hierarchical designs can be specified and synthesized with the SCWithin each module, multiple concurrent processes can be declared

**Improved use of the carry-save representation for the synthesis of complex arithmetic circuits**

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the latest contributions, 1111 discusses various heuristic and optimal algorithms to design arbitrary compressor treesSI: PP() produces a set of partial products and Sum() represents multiple-input additionsis also a simple transformation in which we replace a multi- input adder A multi-precision serial parallel multiplier [ll] is used in each processor in order to perform the partial products necessary for2.1.3 Multiprecision Fig.coding (unsigned or signed 2's complement nurnbcrs), the weight precision (4, 8 or 16-bits) and the input precisian (arbitrary).

**The performance of IEEE floating-point operators on FPGAs**

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Using a combination of architectural re-congurability, multiple numeric processors and variable-precision two sources are presented in Table 4.targets Device Table 4 Comparative Performance Data for the Double Precision Multiplier Lee's The basic arithmetic units include nm VP Multi- plication (VP Mult) units, na VPcorrectly in the rounding to nearest mode, extending the IEEE standard to arbitrary precision arithmetic.in VPFPAP are executed though the explicitly parallel technology of multiple basic arithmetic INFINITE, ZERO, UNDERFLOW, OVERFLOW appears in any floating point arithmetic.have used the tiling method, which is ultimately doing full multi- plication, andthe comparison with the best reported implementation of quadruple precision floating point

**Combined integer and variable precision (CIVP) floating point multiplication architecture for FPGAs**

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But in this paper, our aim is to address the multi- media applications where therequire 49 18x18 bit multipliers to perform 113x113 bit multiplication (since nearest multiple ofVariable precisionarithmetic circuits for In practice, therefore, DA often appears in the form of multiple ROMs of much smaller sizebring about PSNR improvement of at most 1 dB for a certain internal precision n2. ThisWe propose a novel distributed arithmetic paradigm named NEDA for VLSI implementation of DSP is not normalized, meaning that a single DFP number may have multiple representations.The infinitely precise result for addition is 5,000,000,000,000,005.500000000000000 × 100 which rounds toThe multiplication used to push ANc to the full decimal64 precision of p = 16

**High-level synthesis for large bit-width multipliers on FPGAs: a case study**

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Our ECC Adder thus contains a total of 42 multi-precision multiplication operations.It is a reconfigurable board consisting of two Multi-Adaptive Processor (MAP) modules, each with two For adders with more than 64 bits, we simply use multiple cycles to compute the addition The CPA adders are replaced by fast and smaller carry trees and instead of using separate CPAs for noMultiple-precision fixed-point vector multiply-accumulator using shared segmentation,

**Architectural support for fast symmetric-key cryptography**

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Public key encryption requires exponentiation and modular multiplication of large multi precision numbers ofGeneral permutations map N bits onto N bits with an arbitrary exchange ofThe former groups will benefit from more computing resources (especially multiplies) and This module consists of three on-chip memory modules, control logic, and multiple basic 128-bitsubtraction units, a left shifter unit, a logic right shifter unit, and two arithmetic right shifter The 134-bit internal computation precision is used to ensure that the relative error is smaller

**Verification of arithmetic datapaths using polynomial function models and congruence solving**

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are those that implement non-linear arithmetic commonly found in communication and multi- media DSPwe also found that designs with only add, mult operations, but with arbitrary internal signalTo perform the scaling, we first compute the least common multiple (lcm) of the

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