SOLAR ENERGY research paper

solar energy is the radiant energy emitted by the Sun. Energy derived from the Sun's radiation. Passive solar energy can be exploited through architectural design, as by positioning windows to allow sunlight to enter and help heat a space. Active solar energy involves the conversion of sunlight to electrical energy, especially in solar (photovoltaic) cells.

Solar energy conversion with fluorescent collectors
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Abstract A new principle for solar energy conversion is proposed and evaluated theoretically. Collection and concentration of direct and diffuse radiation is possible by the use of a stack of transparent sheets of material doped with fluorescent dyes. High efficiency

Efficient titanium oxide/conjugated polymer photovoltaics for solar energy conversion
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Conjugated-polymer photovoltaics offer a non-toxic, easily manufactured, low-cost alternative to inorganic-based solar cells. The high absorption coefficient of most conjugated polymers and the high percentage of absorbed photons that produce an excited state (> Photoelectrochemical devices for conversion of solar energy into both electrical energy and chemical energy are discussed with emphasis on how the various material properties of the photoactive electrodes influence device efficiency and stability. The similarity between

Absorption of solar energy in the atmosphere: Discrepancy between model and observations
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An atmospheric general circulation model, which assimilates data from daily observations of temperature, humidity, wind, and sea-level air pressure, was compared with a set of observations that combines satellite and ground-based measurements of solar flux. The Solar energy is generally recognized to be environmentally benign, and inexhaustible in quantity. As a consequence, public expectations for its successful development and early commercialization have been high. Technological feasibility taken for granted, the remaining

Burning buried sunshine: human consumption of ancient solar energy
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Fossil fuels developed from ancient deposits of organic material, and thus can be thought of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets> 80% of its current energy needs. Here, using published biological, geochemical, and industrial data, I estimate the amount of Current research and development work in solar energy utilization is very briefly reviewed. Attention is drawn to the possible use of photoelectrochemical effects to convert solar energy directly to electric power or synthetic fuel. Photoelectrochemical cells that have been Lake Yanda as a Solar Energy Trap LAKE V ANDA is shown to be a natural example of the trapping and storing of solar energy by a salt water density gradient. The bottom of this Lake (218ft.) is maintained at 25 C despite a mean annual air temperature of about-20 C, the solar

Materials for photothermal solar energy conversion
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Commencally or potentially available selective and non-selective absorber surfaces for solar heat collectors are reviewed and the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is outlined. The review of available published literature has indicated that a lack of quantitative

Solar energy collection and its utilization for house heating
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Abstract The thesis may be classified into two sections, the first two chapters dealing with the general problem of solar house heating and the remaining two with the special problem of collection of solar energy using flat plate collectors, While economic considerations In the present paper the progress in the field of solar energy conversion for the production of electricity and storable chemical fuels during the last decade is reviewed. The current- potential behavior of regenerative photovoltaic cells are derived and related to charge The petroleum age began about 150 years ago. Easily available energy has supported major advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, and indeed many diverse activities valued by humans. Now world petroleum and natural gas supplies have peaked and their

Rings, ellipses and horseshoes: how purple bacteria harvest solar energy
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Abstract This Review summarises the current state of research on the structure and function of light-harvesting apparatus in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Particular emphasis is placed on the major open questions still outstanding in this field in addition to what is Characteristics of Solar Energy and its Chemical Conversion 2.4 Molecular Assemblies and Polymers for Conversion Systems 3 Photoindueed The high solar energy density achieved in our simple and cheap Fresnel installation has been used for several surface modifications of metallic materials. This equipment is a very useful tool to apply concentrated solar energy in the field of high and very high temperatures Abstract The fluorescent energy conversion principle using several sheets of transparent material doped with fluorescent molecules to concentrate radiation is extended to include diffuse radiation. Two cases are treated here: diffuse radiation only and a composite

Physics looks at solar energy
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The idea of using the sun as a source of energy has had a long history, but so far it has been a history of bright hope and dismal failure. In the middle 1950s newspaper headlines were full of glowing predictions of what solar energy could do for mankind; the first International

Nontechnical barriers to solar energy use: review of recent literature
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In this paper, we review the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use. Specifically, we draw on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America

The present and future use of solar thermal energy as a primary source of energy
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The radiative energy from the Sun that keeps our planet warm exceeds by far the current primary energy supply used by mankind for its comfort, leisure and economic activities. It also exceeds vastly other energy sources at ground level such as geothermic or tidal

Hybrid ( solar and wind) energy systems for rural electrification
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Abstract Hybrid power system can be used to reduce energy storage requirements. The influence of the Deficiency of Power Supply Probability (DPSP), Relative Excess Power Generated (REPG), Energy to Load Ratio (ELR), fraction of PV and wind energy , and

Hybrid solar lighting doubles the efficiency and affordability of solar energy in commercial buildings
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Throughout the 1900s, use of the sun as a source of energy has evolved considerably. Early in the century, the sun was the primary source of interior light for buildings during the day. Eventually, however, the cost, convenience, and performance of electric lamps improved

Net Zero energy solar buildings: an overview and analysis on worldwide building projects
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Abstract This paper summarises the state of two research phases within the scope of the IEA Task 40/Annex 52 Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings . The first objective is a cross section analysis of a comprehensive collection of more than 280 international zero

Effects of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity
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Abstract The effect of temperature, solar flux and relative humidity on the efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity using photovoltaic (PV) modules in Port Harcourt (tropical climate region) was studied using a BK Precision Model 615 Digital Light instrument.

Review and comparison of different solar energy technologies
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Abstract Most of the power generated nowadays is produced using fossil fuels, which emit tons of carbon dioxide and other pollution every second. More importantly, fossil fuel will eventually run out. In order to make the development of our civilization sustainable and Abstract Theoretical considerations and preliminary photo-electrochemical experiments with ZrSe 2 indicate the possibility of converting and simultaneously storing solar energy by means of light driven electrochemical reactions producing intercalation compounds of layer-

Solar energy grid integration systems- energy storage (SEGIS-ES)
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1. Executive Summary In late 2007, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nations electric grid. This Renewable Systems

Design and Optimization of Net Zero Energy Solar Homes.
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Abstract Homes that utilize solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies to generate as much energy as their yearly load are referred to as net zero energy solar homes (ZESHs). Various design guidelines exist that help designers determine form and orientation Abstract Using solar power in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) requires adaptation to a highly varying energy supply. From an applications perspective, however, it is often preferred to operate at a constant quality level as opposed to changing application behavior

The development of hybrid integrated renewable energy system (wind and solar ) for sustainable living at
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Abstract The precedent of the world oil crisis in 1970s and the recent emerging condition of high soaring prices of oil powerfully illustrated that the concerns over the energy resources which exposed the vulnerability of the energy supply and the over dependence on oil as a

Solar Energy Application on Environmental Protection
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Abstract -Human need deployment for energy resources always was a basic matter of all human life, and try to achieve one immortal energy resource was an old human wishes. With human civilization gradual advance life wood, then coal, oil and gas enter to energy market.

dielectric passivation layers for application in industrially feasible high-efficiency cristalline silicon solar cells in 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy
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Abstract : Due to the trend towards thinner and higher efficient crystalline silicon solar cells, it is substantial to decrease the surface recombination velocity and to increase the internal optical reflection at the rear surface. Therefore, dielectric passivation of the rear

Wind and solar energy curtailment: experience and practices in the United States
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Curtailment of variable renewable generation, particularly wind and solar energy , is becoming more widespread as wind and solar energy development expands across the country and penetrations increase. Curtailment can affect the revenue of wind and solar Fig. 1. Map of Lake Bonney showing positions of holes drilled in the surface ice by cloud. The temperatures measured are tabulated in Tables l and 2. The temperatures in the holes 15 and 16 are lower than at corresponding depths in other parts of the western lobe and

Design of the linkages type tracking mechanisms of the solar energy conversion systems by using Multi Body Systems Method
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Abstract Nowadays the field of applied mechanical systems opens new horizons for the use of orientation mechanisms. The opportunity to use mechanisms with a sustainable purpose leads to new approaches in the development of renewable energy systems

Metal-insulator-metal diodes for solar energy conversion
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In classical MIM diode theory the MIM diode in conjunction with the light source is treated as a classical rectifier coupled to a sinusoidal voltage source representing the incident electromagnetic radiation. This classical theory is applicable to MIM diodes operating at low

Capturing solar energy from asphalt pavements
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Abstract The concept of extracting heat energy from asphalt pavements has been investigated in this study. The scope of work consisted of finite element modeling and testing with small and large scale asphalt pavement samples. Water flowing through copper tubes

Solar energy potential assessment using GIS
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Abstract Renewable energy resources are those having a cycling time less than 100 years and are renewed by the nature and their supply exceeds the rate of consumption. Renewable energy systems use resources that are constantly replaced in nature and are

A brief study of the prospect of solar energy in generation of electricity in Bangladesh
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Abstract -This study examines the average annual sunlight hours in Bangladesh and was compared with other developed countries like Germany and Spain, which are notable for their development in renewable energy sector. Suitable locations for solar power plants are

High performance MSG satellite model for operational solar energy applications
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Abstract We present a new version of model for high-performance calculation of global and direct irradiances from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data covering Europe, Africa and Middle East. The full spatial and temporal resolutions of MSG data are

Computer evaluation of the solar energy potential in an urban environment
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Abstract Besides a more efficient energy use, large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be necessary in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. The preliminary

Nanocrystalline copper oxide for selective solar energy absorbers
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Abstract The high- energy edge of the transparency window in nanocrystalline copper monoxide (CuO) can be shifted to 0.6 eV (against 1.45 eV in single crystals). This shift is related to a modification of the shape of the fundamental absorption edge of CuO without

Solar energy on clear and cloudy days
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The crucial role played by natural resources is plainly written on the face of the history of our species. The banners hardly let the true mo- tifs be known, but all important wars and mili- tary expeditions have aimed at the control, if not the direct possession, of natural resources. The point

Comparison of the solar energy utilisation potential of different urban environments
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Abstract : Besides a more efficient energy use, large scale application of solar energy technologies in the urban context will be necessary in the upcoming decades to achieve a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the biosphere. Two different urban sites, The method presented here is an extension of the multiple shooting algorithm in order to handle multipoint boundary-value problems and problems of optimal control in the special situation of singular controls or constraints on the state variables. This generalization allows

Utilization of solar energy for power generation in Nigeria
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Abstract This study presents the viabilities for power generation in Nigeria through the utilization of the suns energy . Solar -thermal and photovoltaic options were discussed. It highlights the basic science for the design and selection of components for successfully

Techniques for maximizing efficiency of solar energy harvesting systems
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Abstract Energy harvesting capabilities enable totally untethered operation of mobile and ubiquitous systems for extended periods of time without requiring battery replacement. This paper examines technical issues with solar energy harvesting. First, maximum power point

A solar reserve methodology for renewable energy integration studies based on subhourly variability analysis
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Abstract Increasing penetrations of wind and solar energy are raising concerns among electric system operators because of the variability and uncertainty associated with the power sources. Previous work focused on the quantification of reserves for systems with

Release 3 NASA surface meteorology and solar energy data set for renewable energy industry use
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Abstract This paper reviews Release 3 of the NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set consisting of resource parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. The SSE data set is available free-of-charge over the

Solar energy and its biological-physical interactions in the sea
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For over 4 billion years, solar radiation has played a profound role in driving the physical circulation of the atmosphere, the oceans, and the biological processes responsible for sustaining life on Earth. The angular distribution of, and diel and seasonal changes in, solar

200 W solar energy delivery with optical fiber bundles
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Abstract Flexible optical fibers and fiber bundles can be used to transfer solar energy to a desirable place, where it could be used either to pump a laser crystal or to cany out other useful mechanical, chemical or thermal processings. Two flexible fiber-optic bundles were

A global solar radiation model for the design of solar energy systems
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Abstract : In order to obtain the global solar radiation for practical applications, a mathematical model was developed in this study. The experimental data for five years were conelated in order to calculate the model parameters. Knowing the values of cloudiness

Global energy and climate security through solar power from deserts
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The present world energy supply system is facing 3 basic problems: limitation of fossil fuel resources, climate change by carbon dioxide emission, insecurity by nuclear weapon competence and radioactive materials. The strategic goal therefore should be: transition to

Use of CuO nano-material for the improvement of thermal conductivity and performance of low temperature energy storage system of solar pond
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Solar energy is available abundantly among the other renewable sources of energy . The availability of solar energy is not constant and continuous, whereas the demand for energy is almost constant and continuous. To bridge the gap between the energy demand and

Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage unit integrated with solar water heating system
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Abstract In thermal systems such as solar thermal and waste heat recovery systems, the available energy supply does not usually coincide in time with the process demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES) is necessary for the most effective utilization of

Options for photovoltaic solar energy systems in portable products
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Abstract Electricity demand in many portable products is supplied by batteries that can be recharged by electricity from the mains. Because of high costs, inconvenient use and environmental concern, it would be useful to find alternative ways to supply energy to Abstract A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace

Modeling and simulation of a solar energy system by use of bond graphs
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Abstract This paper describes a. new approach to determine the thermodynamic behavior of a building structure. The bond graph technique is used to model the physical laws of heat transfer between the basic components of a house regarding conduction, convection, and